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Ch4 Immun./Serology

Flashcards made directly from the Success! in Clinical Laboratory Science book

A hapten is a determinant capable of stimulating an immune response only when bound to a carrier
What is one characteristic of B cells They contain surface immunoglobulins
a lymphokine is a soluble mediator produced by lymphocytes
monocytes and macrophages play a major role in the mononuclear phagocytic system. For an antibody-coated antigen to be phagocytized, what part of the antibody molecule fits into a receptor on the phagocytic cell? Fc region
Cell mediated immunity is primarily mediated by T helper cells
the HLA complex is located primarily on chromosome 6
HLA antigens are found on All nucleated cells
A total acute antibody titer of 2 followed by a convalescent titer of 16 would be indicative what kind of infection? acute or chronic? acute
A young woman shows increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections. Upon assay, she shows a low level of C3. What could this indicate? She has a decreased production of C3
What is the predominant type of antibody found in the serum of neonates born after full-term gestation Maternal IgG
An important part of the nonspecific immune response is (are) Complement cascade
the major class of immunoglobulin found in adult human serum is IgG is the major class
which class of immunoglobulin possesses delta heavy chains? IgD possess delta heavy chains
which class of immunoglobulin possesses 10 antigenic binding sites IgM possesses 10 antigenic binding sites
Which class of immunoglobulin binds to basophils and mast cells to mediate immediate hypersensitivity reactions IgA mediates immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate allergic reaction
when performing the enzyme-multiplied immumoassay technique (EMIT), how is the ligand in the patient's serum detected? competes with enzyme-labeled antigen for binding to a specific antibody
severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an Immunodeficiency with decreased or dysfunctional T and B cells
an example of immune injury due to the deposition of antigen-antibody complexes is acute glomerulonephritis
The serologically detectable antibody produced in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is primarily of the class IgM is produced in RA
in bone marrow transplantation, immunocompetent cells in the donor marrow may recognize antigens in the recipient and respond to those antigens. This phenomenon is an example of Graft versus host disease
multiple myeloma is a Cancer of plasma cells characterized by increased antibody concentration
This description, "Conjugated reagent antibody reacts with antigen to form antigen-antibody complexes", describes what kind of assay? direct immunofluorescence assay
in individuals allergic to pollen, hyposensitization protocols may be initiated. These individuals receive injections of allergen
After exposure to antigen, the first antibodies that can be detected belong to the class IgM
Corneal tissue may be transplanted successfully from one patient to another because the cornea occupies a privileged site not usually seen by the immune system
a kidney transplant from one identical twin to another is an example of a(n) isograft
in Bruton disease, measurement of serum immunoglobulins would show The absence of all immunoglobulins
a molecule found in human serum sometimes used as a tumor marker is alpha-Fetoprotein
which cell is the principal source of interleukin 2? t cell
diagnostic reagents useful for detecting antigen by the coagglutination reaction may be prepared by binding antibody to killed staphylococcal cells via the Fe receptor of staphylococcal protein A. The class of antibody bound by this protein is IgG
A mahor advantage of passive immunization compared to active immunization is that Antibody is available more quickly
the strength with which a multivalent antibody binds a multivalent antigen is termed avidity
how does the secondary humoral immune response differ from the primary response? The antibody levels produced are higher in the secondary immune response
after activation of the complement system, leukocytes and macrophages are attracted to the site of complement activation by C5a
the type of immunity that follows the injection of an immunogen is termed artificial active
Innate immunity includes phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells
the antibody most frequently present in systemic lupus erythematosus is directed against nuclear antigen
the rapid plasma reagin assay for syphilis does not need to be read microscopically because the antigen is complexed with charcoal
The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test for syphilis is classified as a(n) Flocculation reaction
One case of a false-positive VDRL test is systemic lupus erythematosus
the portion of an antigen that binds to an antibody or T cell receptor is called a(n) epitope
identical antibodies produced from a single clone of plasma cell describes monoclonal antibodies
IgM antibodies react well in complement fixation (CF) tests. Because of this, CF tests for antibodies should be positive early in the course of the disease
which of the following serologic tests is commonly performed by an immunofluorescence method? Anti-HBs, Antinuclear antibody (ANA), Antistreptolysin O(ASO), or C-reactive protein (CRP)? antinuclear antibody (ANA)
The Fab portion of an antibody contains the hypervariable reagion
in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the visible reaction is due to a reaction between enzyme and substrate
Elevated IgE levels are typically found in Type I hypersensitivity reactions
loss of self-tolerance results in autoimmune disease
a human cell with CD8 on its surface is most likely a cytotoxic T cell
monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridomas
antibodies that bind to the same epitope are the same idiotype
the activity of natural killer (NK) cells.... does not require previous exposure to an antigen
interaction between B and T helper cells involves foreign antigen on B cell binding to T cell receptor
the primary mechanism responsible for pathology in systemic lupus erythematosus is antibydies directed against self antigens
Which complement protein is present in the greatest concentration in human serum? C3
an autoimmune disease causing destruction of pancreatic cells can result in Type 1 diabetes
Which of the following complement proteins is part of the membrane attack complex? C1, C3, C4, or C5? C5
In the classical pathway of complement activation, activation by antibody requires one ___?___ or two ___?___ molecules one IgM or two IgG molecules
the alternative complement pathway can be activated by bacterial capsule polysaccarides
A cut on a person's finger becomes contaminated with the bacterium S. aureus. The first response by the immune system consists of activity of Neutrophils
Incompatible blood tranfusions are examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions
A soluble antigen and soluble antibody reacting to form an insoluble product describes precipitation reactions
Which of the following is an example of a treponemal antigen test used for the diagnosis of syphilis? CRP, RPR, VDRL, FTA-ABS? FTA-ABS
A serum sample is positive for HBsAg. This result indicates that the person from whom the serum was taken Has either active or chronic hepatitis B infection
What is the indicator system used in the complement fization test? Sensitized sheep red blood cells
the isotype of an immunoglobulin antibody is defined by the heavy chain
a patient report states the presence of serum antibodies to OspC. What disease does the patient most likely have? Lyme disease
Patient serum is mixed with a suspension of guinea pig antigen. Whe the sample is then mixed with horse RBCs agglutination occurs. This is suggestive of an infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus
Hashimoto disease is an autoimmune disease primarily involving the thyroid gland
rheumatic fever sometimes occurs after group A stretococcal infections. In this condition and autoimmune response attacks the tissue of the heart valves. This phenomenon is an example of molecular mimicry
"Superantigens" are toxins produced by some strains of S. aureus and group A streptococci and cause damage by polyclonal T cell activation
The first serologic marker to appear in patients with acute hepatitis B virus infection is HBsAg
a living donor is being sought for a child who requires a kidney transplant. The best odds of finding an MHC-compatible donor occur between the child and A sibling (brother or sister)
cells that can act as antigen-presenting cells for exogenous antigens include B lymphocytes
In patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection, immune status can be monitored by measuring the ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ cells
Why does vaccination against hepatits B virus (HBV) also prevent hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections? HDV requires the host to be concurrently infected with HBV
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes are derived from Hematopoietic stem cells
contact dermatitis is mediated by T lymphocytes
in a competitive radioimmunosorbent test (RIST), what does a high signal suggest? the patient sample has a low concentration of IgE
in a chemiluminescent immunologic assay, what is the signal detected? light
Created by: Mwortman



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