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Fuel Homeostasis 1

Duke PA physiology

Why do we need food? Generate energy, aquire fuel substrates for energy reserves and provide raw materials for cell & tissue turnover and for heat loss
Body energy = energy intake - energy output
Why do we need fuel? maintain daily activities
Why do we need fuel reserves? function between meals
Why do we need raw materials? renew cells and tissues
What behavioral mechanisms govern when and how much food we eat? hunger and satiety - governed by hormones
What is positive balance? eating more food than using - gain weight
What is negative balance? eating less food than we use - lose weight
What are the two ways to make ATP? glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation
How much ATP is made through glycolysis? 2 mol ATP + 2 pyruvate per glucose
How much ATP is made through oxidative phosphorylation? 34 mol ATP + CO2 + H20 per glucose
What is required for oxidative phosphorylation? oxygen - only works under aerobic conditions
How is excess fuel from the diet stored? glycogen, fat and protein
Which fuel storage contains the highest amount of energy stored? fat
What is the most labile storage form? glycogen
How much glucose per day is needed to maintain body at rest? 240g glucose
Respiratory quotient (RQ) ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed
RQ for carb diet 1
What is the RQ of the brain? very close to 1.0 - prefers carbs
What is the RQ of a mixed diet? 0.8
What is the RQ of an all fat diet? 0.7
How many kg of fuel are needed for a 100 kg body? 2300 kg fuel
BMR basal metabolic rate
What does BMR depend on? age, gender, amount of lean muscle mass, physical activity level, diet, hormones
What hormones dictate BMR? thyroid, epi, norepi
What is the metabolic energy of proteins and carbs? 4 kcal/g
What is the metabolic energy of fat? 9 kcal/g
Which state is anabolic? fed
Which state is catabolic? fasting
Where can glycogen be stored? liver and muscle
What is an anabolic state? moving into storage
What is the dominant anabolic hormone? insulin
Where is the glucose produced in a fasting state? liver
What forms of energy does the liver produce in a fasting state? ketones, glucose
What is a catabolic state? breaking down stored fuel and breaking them down into fuel - glucose and ketones
What are the dominant catabolic hormones? cortisol, epinephrine, glucagon
Where is excess energy store? liver, muscle, fat
What control anabolic vs catabolic pathways? hormones
What two hormones govern "minute to minute" maintenance? insulin and glucagon
What four hormones work under stress? cortisol, epinephrine, glucagon and growth hormone
What turns on stress hormones? drop in glucose
What governs metabolism under long term starvation? thyroid hormone
What does thyroid hormone do in starvation? downregulated basal metabolic rate, conserve energy
When do plasma glucose levels rise? after meals
What do plasma glucose levels do in sleep? fall
What effect do a rise in plasma glucose levels have on insulin? when glucose rises, insulin immediately goes up
What does glucagon do when insulin is up? low glucagon
Does insulin or glucagon go through larger variations? insulin - glucagon never jumps as much as insulin
How does the body regulate glucagon? very tightly
Where does a stimulus go in increased plasma glucose levels? stimulates release of insulin from beta cell
Created by: ges13



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