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Chapter 7

introduction to the Endocrine system

the study of hormones is called_____________.
List the 3 basic ways hormones act on their target cells
for a chemical to be defined as a hormone, it must be secreted into the __________ for transport to a(n) _________and take effect at ________concentrations.
what is meant by the term half-life in connection with the activity of hormone molecules?
Metabolites are inactivated hormone molecules, broken down by enzymes found primarily in the _________found primarily in the _______ and ______, to be exerted in the ______ and______ respectively.
candidate hormones often have the word ________ as part of their name.
why do steroid hormones usually take so much longer to act than peptide hormones.
when steroid hormones act on the cell nucleus, the hormone-receptor complex acts as a(n)____________ factor, binds to DNA, and activates one or more __________, which create mRNA to direct the synthesis of new ___________.
What happens when you're thirsty or slightly dehydrated? ADH levels rise. Your kidneys reabsorb more water and put out concentrated urine. If you've had plenty to drink, ADH levels fall and what comes out is clears and dilute.
What happens when your body doesn't make enough ADH? this condition is called central diabetes insipidus. If you make enough but your kidneys can't respond to it, you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
what controls rate of enzymatic reactions, transport of ions or molecules across cell membranes, and gene expression and protein synthesis? Hormones
what do pheromones do? They elicit physiological or behavioral response on other organisms of the same species
Cellular mechanism of action depends on... binding to target cell receptors
True or False: A trophic hormone control the secretion of another hormone. True
What are the 3 integrating centers? Hypothalamic stimulation- from CNS Anterior pituitary stimulation-from hypothalamic trophic hormones Endocrine gland stimulation- from anterior pituitary trophic hormones (except prolactin) Cortisol
Synergism.. combined effect is greater than the sum of individual effects
Permissiveness need... second hormone to get full effect
Antagonism is when one substance opposes the actions of another
Hypersecretion: excess hormone
Hypersecretion is caused by... tumors or exogenous iatrogenic treatment (Negative feedback may lead to atrophy of gland)
Hyposecretion: deficient hormone
Hyposecretion is caused by... decreased synthesis materials or atrophy (absence of negative feedback leads to overproduction of trphic hormones)
What are some receptor and signal transduction abnormalities? Missing or nonfunctional receptors androgen insensitivity syndrome pseudohypothyroidism
Created by: mramir06