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Ch 6

Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis

QuestionAnswer
what are the 2 routes for long distance signal delivery in the body? neurons and blood
which two body systems maintain homoeostasis by monitoring and responding to changes in the environment? nervous and endocrine system
what 2 types of physiological signals does the body use to send messages? of theses two types, which is available to cells? chemical (available to all cells) and electrical
In a signal transduction pathway, the signal ligand, also called the first messenger, binds to a(n)____, which activities and changes intracellular. receptors, targets (effectors), or proteins
the 3 main amplifier enzymes are_____, which forms cAMP ___, which forms cGMP; and_____ which converts a phospholipid from the cell membrane into 2 different second messenger molecules adenylyl guanylyl cylase phospholipase C
An enzyme known as protein kinase adds the functional group____ to its substrate, by transferring it from a(n)____molecule. phosphate, ATP
Distinguish between central and peripheral nerves. Central: located within the central nervous system Peripheral: found outside the CNS
Receptors for signal pathways may be found in the ______, ________, or ___________ of the cell. nucleus cytosol cell membranee
Down-regulation results in a(n)______(increased or decreased?) number of receptors in response to a prolonged signal. decreased
list 2 ways a cell may decrease its response to a signal it may down-regulate receptor number or decrease receptor affinity for the substrate
In a negative feedback loop, the response moves the system in the ______(same/opposite) direction as the stimulus moves it. opposite
gap junctions connect... two cells using protein channels called connexons, made from connexin subunits
paracrine signals act on.. nearby cells
autocrine signals act on... the cell that secrets them
cytokines are... peptide autocrine and paracrine signals
neurotransmitters, neuromodulators. and neurohormones are all chemicals secreted by.... neurons
Neurotransmitters act ______ on nearby cells, while neuromodulators act more _______. rapidly slowly
Neurohormones and hormones are secreted into... the blood for action on distant targets
Receptors agonists activate... receptors just like the normal ligand
Antagonistic pathways create... responses that opposes each other
Transduction: A signal molecule transfers information from EFC to the cytoplasm
Amplification: one signal molecule creates a larger spinal
Cytokines, hormones. and neurohormoes travel through.... the blood
cytokines. nerohormones. and neurotransmitters are released by... neurons
signal pathways have... signal molecule, receptor, intercellular signal molecule(s), and target proteins
Receptors are on.... cell membranes or cytosol or nucleus
Steroids are lipophilic, so... they can enter cells and bind to intercellular receptors
receptors are either... ligand-gated ions channels, receptor enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors, or integrin
first messengesr are (extracellular or intracellular) extracellular
second messengers are (intercellular or extracellular) intracellular
Created by: mramir06