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Ch 5

Membrane Dynamics

simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis are active or passive? Passive
Phagocytosis, exocytosis, and endocytosis are examples of active or passive transport Active
List 4 factors that increase the rate of diffusion in air greater concentration gradient, smaller distance, higher temperature, and smaller molecular size
list 3 physical methods by which materials enter the cell simple diffusion, protein-mediated transport, or vesicular transport
A contransporter is a protein that moves more than one molecule at a time. If the molecules are moved in the same direction, the transporter are called________ carriers. symport
Distinguish between active and passive transport active: requires energy passive: use energy stored in a concentration gradient
List the four functions of membrane proteins structural proteins, transporter proteins, receptors, and enzymes
if the molecules are transported in opposite directions, they are called____________ carriers antiport
A transport protein that moves only one substrate is called a(n)_________ carrier. uniport
the two types of active transport are primary (direct) and secondary (indirect)
a molecule that moves freely between the intercellular and extracellular compartments is said to be a(n)_____ solute. A molecule that is not able to enter cells is called a(n)_____ solute. penetrating nonpenetrating
what determines the osmolality of a solution? concentration of osmotically active transports
in what units is body osmolality usually expressed? osmol/L or
what does it mean if we say that a solution is hypotonic to a cell? Hypertonic to the same cell? net flux into the cell at equilibrium Net water loss at equilibrium
what determines the tonicity of a solution relative to a cell? is determined by relative concentrations of nonpenetrating solutes in cell versus solution
The membrane potential at which the electrical gradient exactly opposes the concentration gradient for an ion is known as____ equilibrium potential
A material that allows free movement of electrical charges is called a(n) ______, whereas one that prevents this movement is called a(n)_______ conductor insulator
True or false: primary active transport uses the potential energy stored in a concentration gradient and is indirectly driven by energy from ATP false
Chemical gradient concentration gradient
Electrical gradient separation of chemical charge
electrochemical gradient includes both concentration and electrical gradient
hypertonic cell shrinks
isotonic cell doesn't change size
hypotonic cell swells
water moves freely between a semipermeable membrane is known as osmosis
Bulk flow is a pressure gradient that moves a fluid along with its dissolved and suspended materials
True or False: carrier proteins never form a continuous connection between the intracellular and extracellular fluid. they bind to substrates, then change conformation True
True or false: In secondary active transport the energy comes from ATP False
Created by: mramir06



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