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Ch. 6 Terms

TermDefinition
autodetection A feature of UEFI/BIOS that detects a new drive and automatically selects the correct drive capacity and configuration, including the best possible standard supported by both the hard drive and the motherboard.
BD-R Stands for BD (Blu-ray Disc) recordable
BD-RE Stands for BD (Blu-ray Disc) rewriteable
Blu-Ray Disc (BD) An optical disc technology that uses the UDF version 2.5 file system and a blue laser beam, which is shorter than any red beam used by DVD or CD discs. The shorter blue laser beam allows Blu-ray discs to store more data than a DVD
bootrec A Windows command used to repair the BCD (Boot Configuration Data) and boot sectors
CD (compact disc) An optical disc technolog that uses a red laser beam and can hold up to 700 MB of data
CDFS (Compact Disc File System) The 32-bit file system for CD discs and some CD-R and CD-RW discs. Also see Universal Disk Format (UDF)
CD-ROM Stands for CD-read-only memory
CD-RW Stands for CD rewriteable
CompactFlash (CF) card A flash memory device that allows for sizes up to 137 GB, although current sizes range up to 32 GB
data cartirdge A full-sized cartridge that holds data and is used in a tape drive
defragmentation tool A utility or command to rewrite a file to a disk in one contiguous chain of clusters, thus speeding up data retrieval
diskpart A Windows command to manage hard drives, partitions, and volumes
DVD (digital versatile disc or digital video disc) A technology used by optical discs that uses a red laser beam and can hold up to 17 GB of data
DVD-ROM Stands for DVD read-only memory
DVD-RW Stands for DVD rewriteable memory
DVD-RW DL Stands for DVD rewriteable memory, dual layers. Dual layers almost double the storage capacity of DVD-RW discs
embedded MMC (eMMC) Internal storage used instead of using a solid-state drive (SSD) in inexpensive mobile devices such as cell phones, tablets, and laptops
external enclosure A housing designed to store hard drives external from the computer
external SATA (eSATA) A standard for external drives based on SATA that uses a special external shielded SATA cable up to 2 meters long
fault tolerance The degree to which a system can tolerate failures. Adding redundant components, such as disk mirroring or disk duplexing, is a way to build in fault tolerance
file system The overall structure that an OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a disk. Examples of file systems are NTFS and FAT32. Windows is always installed on a volume that uses the NTFS file system
format The Windows command to prepare a hard drive volume, logical drive, or USB flash drive for use by placing tracks and sectors on its surface to store information
formatting The Windows command to prepare a hard drive volume, logical drive, or USB flash drive for use by placing tracks and sectors on its surface to store information
hard disk drive (HDD) The main secondary storage device of a computer. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives: magnetic and solid state
hard drive The main secondary storage device of a computer. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives: magnetic and solid state
hot-swapping Plugging in a device while the computer is turned on
hybrid hard drive (H-HDD) A hard drive that uses both magnetic and solid-state drive (SSD) technologies. The bulk of storage uses the magnetic component, and a storage buffer on the drive is made of an SSD component. Windows ReadyDrive supports hybrid hard drives
low-level formatting A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors, and tests for bad spots on the disk surface
magnetic hard drive One of two technologies used by hard drives where data is stored as magnetic spots on disks that rotate at a high speed
minicartridge A tape drive cartridge that is only 3¼ x 2½ x 3/5 inches. It is small enough to allow two drives to fit into a standard 5-inch drive bay of a PC case
mirrored volume The term used by Windows for the RAID 1 level that duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance. Also see RAID 1
MultiMediaCard (MMC) A compact storage card that looks like an SD card, but the technology is different and they are not interchangeable. Generally, SD cards are faster than MMC cards
NAND flash memory The type of memory used in solid-state drives (SSD). NAND stands for "Not AND" and refers to the logic used when storing a 1 or 0 in the grid of rows and columns on the memory chip
RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks or redundant array of independent disks) Several methods of configuring multiple hard drives to store data to increase logical volume size and improve performance, or to ensure that if one hard drive fails, the data is still available from another hard drive
RAID 0 Using space from two or more physical disks to increase the disk space available for a single volume. Performance improves because data is written evenly across all disks. Windows calls RAID 0 a striped volume
RAID 1 A type of drive imaging that duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance. Windows calls RAID 1 a mirrored volume. Also called mirrored volume
RAID 1+0 A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 that requires at least four disks to work as an array of drives and provides the best redundancy and performance
RAID 10 A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 that requires at least four disks to work as an array of drives and provides the best redundancy and performance
RAID 5 A technique that stripes data across three or more drives and uses parity checking, so that if one drive fails, the other drives can re-create the data stored on the failed drive. RAID 5 drives increase performance and provide fault tolerance
RAID-5 volume The term used by Windows for RAID 5
read/write head A sealed, magnetic coil device that moves across the surface of a disk in a magnetic hard disk drive (HDD) either reading data from or writing data to the disk
Secure Digital (SD) card A UEFI feature that prevents a system from booting up with drivers or an OS that are not digitally signed and trusted by the motherboard or computer manufacturer
sequential access A method of data access used by tape drives, whereby data is written or read sequentially from the beginning to the end of the tape or until the desired data is found
serial ATA (SATA) An ATAPI interface standard for hard drives, optical drives, and other drives that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable and is easier to configure than PATA systems
S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) A system BIOS and hard drive feature that monitors hard drive performance, disk spin-up time, temperature, distance between the head and the disk, and other mechanical activities of the drive in order to predict when the drive is likely to fail
smart card reader A device that can read a smart card used to authenticate a person onto a network
solid-state device (SSD) An electronic device with no moving parts. A storage device that uses memory chips to store data instead of spinning disks (such as those used by magnetic hard drives and CD drives).
solid-state drive (SSD) A hard drive that has no moving parts. Also see solid-state device (SSD)
spanning A configuration of two hard drives that hold a single Windows volume to increase the size of a volume. Sometimes called JBOD (just a bunch of disks)
Startup Repair A Windows utility that restores many of the Windows files needed for a successful boot
striped volume The term used by Windows for RAID 0. A type of dynamic volume used for two or more hard drives that writes to the disks evenly rather than filling up allotted space on one and then moving on to the next.
UDF (Universal Disk Format) file system A file system for optical media used by all DVD discs and some CD-R and CD-RW discs
wear leveling A technique used on a solid-state drive (SSD) that ensures the logical block addressing does not always address the same physical blocks in order to distribute write operations more evenly across the device
xD-Picture Card A type of flash memory device that has a compact design and currently holds up to 8 GB of data
Created by: drewtang40