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Phys GI 1

Duke PA Physiology

What is produced in the liver? Bile
What two compartments are in the pancreas? endocrine and exocrine
Where does digestion and absorption occur? Small intestine
Where does secretion occur? Salivary, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
What direction is the outer layer of the muscularis externa running? longitudinally - allows for shortening of tube
What direction is the inner layer of the musclaris externa running? runs around the tube - allows for contraction
What type of epithelium is in the esophagus? protective
What type of epithelium is in the stomach? secretory
What type of epithelium is in the small intestine? absorptive
What layer is in between the epithelium and musclaris externa? submucosa
What is the daily input from diet? 2L
Where does the largest amount of absorption occur? ileum
What is the secretion from the tube? 7L
How much daily input arrives in the colon? 2L
What is the daily output? 0.2-0.5L in feces
How do you increase surface area of food? fragmentation (chewing)
What 3 glands do saliva come from? parotid, submandibular, sublingual
What type of saliva does the parotid secrete? serous, mainly protein
What type of saliva does the submandibular secrete? serous (protein), as well as a mucous secretion
What type of saliva does the sublingual secrete? mucous - lubrication
What does amylase do? starts breakdown of carbohydrate
What is lysozyme? protects teeth - antibacterial action
What coordinates swallowing? medulla oblongata - brainstem
What coordinates vomiting? medulla oblongata - brainstem
Where is the cardiac section of the stomach? near the top, small area
Where is the fundus of the stomach? basically the top half
Where is the antrum of the stomach? second half, top 1/4 of that area
What is the last region of the stomach? pyloric
What do parietal cells secrete? HCl, intrinsic factor
What does intrinsic factor do? carries vit B12, allowing for uptake in the ileum
What do chief cells secrete in the stomach? Pepsinogen (inactive pepsin)
What does the acid in the lumen of the stomach do to pepsinogen? cleaves pepsinogen transforming it to active form, to aid in digestion
What do the epithelial cells secrete in the stomach? Mucus
Why would you want mucus in the stomach? protect stomach from acid
What region of the stomach has parietal cells and chief cells? fundus
What is the common endpoint of the 3 various ways to secrete HCl? H+ proton pump - ATPase
What are the 3 ways to regulate the proton pump?
What does CO2 combine with to make bicarbonate? H20
Where does CO2 enter the parietal cells from? ISF
Where does the leftover H+ go after bicarbonate is made in the parietal cells? goes out through the lumen by the H+ proton pump
What enters every time a H+ leaves through the H+ proton pump in the parietal cell? K+
What enters the parietal cell every time a bicarbone leaves? Cl-
Where does the Cl- in the parietal cell go? into the lumen - H+ and Cl- make HCl in stomach
When is the peak acid out put after a meal? hour and a half
When does the acid decrease after a meal? 2 hours
Why does the pH rise in the first 30 minutes? denatured proteins from the food buffer the system
Why does acid secretion decrease by 2 hours? stomach is empty, protein is gone, no more buffer, pH returns to normal
What does smelling, seeing, thinking about food cause? secretion of HCl in stomach
What phase is regulated by Ach? cephalic phase
When Ach binds to the receptor, what happens? proton pump is turned on, HCl production starts
Created by: ges13



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