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Phys GI 2

Duke PA Physiology

QuestionAnswer
What phase is regulated by gastrin and histamine? Gastric phase
Where does the gastrin bind? Gastric receptors on parietal cells
What does gastrin cause? activates proton pump
What does histamine cause? paracrine secretion (regulated by gastrin) turns on proton pump
When does the gastric phase occur? when food enters the stomach
What happens to gastrin in the intestinal phase? decreases - secretin provides negative feedback for gastrin
What phase does the majority of acid output occur? gastric phase
Where does secretin come from? duodenum
What stimulates secretin release? acid production
What innervates cephalic phase? vagal innervation
What do tums do? decrease pH by neutralizing acid in stomach - bicarb - immediate relief, titrates acid
What does tagamet do? hits the histamine receptors, decreases HCl production
What do nexium and prilosec do? knocks off the proton pump - stops acid production
What is the drug of choice for excess acid production in stomach? nexium or prilosec
What are the consequences of nexium or prilosec? loses protective function of acid against bacteria, cuts off negative feedback loop and increases gastrin levels, interferes with secretin
What shuts off gastrin secretion? pH drops back down, around 2
What causes ulcers? H. pylori
What do NSAIDS cause in the stomach? shut off mucous barrier
What is the treatment for ulcers? antibiotic, but it's hard to get it to the right spot
What is the name of the cell that secretes gastrin? G cell
What is the G cell sensitive to? amino acids in the lumen
Is gastrin a hormone? yes
What does somatostatin do to gastrin? inhibits - paracrine
What effect does high H+ cause on somatostatin? cause secretion of somatostatin
How does secretin work? acts as a hormone - inhibits gastrin
Where is somatostatin secreted? antrum of the stomach
Where are the G-cells located? antrum
Where does the secretin come from? duodenum
What other use does nexium have? acid reflux
Why would acid be damaging to the esophagus? esophagus does not have protective mucus - constant acid wears it down
Can you have hyperosmotic materials in the stomach? Yes - stomach wall does not absorb water
What 2 other things can turn on acid production? alcohol and caffeine
Does the chyme enter the small intestine? NO - small intestine is very sensitive to acid
What does the duodenum do to neutralize the acidic chyme? secretes bicarbonate
Why does the chyme take so long to go from stomach to duodenum it has to be neutralized - goes slowly
What role does secretin have in neutralization of acidic chyme in the duodenum? signals pancreatic ducts to secrete bicarbonate
Where is bicarb secreted from to the duodenum? pancreas
What does CHO trigger in the duodenum? GLP-1 (glycogen-like peptide 1)
Where does GLP-1 act? pancreas -islet
What does GLP-1 signal to the islet cells produce? insulin
What do fats and peptides trigger in duodenum? CCK -colecystekinin (check spelling)
What does CCK signal? secretion of zyomgens (enzymes) from the pancreas
What do zymogens do? degrade
What is the other target site of the CCK besides the pancreas? gall bladder
What does the CCK signaling of the gall bladder cause? secretion of bile
Where is the acinus located? pancreas
What does the acinus hold? zymogens (inactive until released into duodenum)
What do duct cells in the pancrease secrete? HCO3
What effect would damage to the pancreas cause? potential activation of zymogens in wrong place
What signals duct cells to release HCO3? secretin
Created by: ges13
 

 



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