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Routing

QuestionAnswer
Static Routing When the IP routes are added manually. This type hase no CPU overhead, no network bandwidth, and the administator oversees security...But this requires a deeper understanding and is only workable on small networks
What is the command to turn on static routing on a router? ip route <dest add> <dest mask> <next hop> <admin dist>
Default Routing A variant of static routing used only in stub networks
stub network network topology where routers with only one port leading to another router
What is the command to remove static IP route? no ip route <dest add> <dest mask> <next hop> <admin dist>
What is the command to add default entry? ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 <admin dest/gate way of last resort>
Dynamic Routing routing protocols are used to automatically update routing tables at the cost of bandwidth
IGP interior gateway protocol are used within autonomous systems for dynamic routing
EGP Exterior gateway protocols are used between autonomous systems are used for dynamic routing
convergence when all routers know the routes to all networks
routing loops When routers endlessly pass around packets convinced that their neighbors can reach a deceased link... prevented with hop counts
hop counts the number of routers that it takes a packet to reach the destination... the Max hop count for RIP is 15 to avoid loops
split horizon rule that prevents packets from being sent on the interface it came in on
route poisoning dead routes are explicitly updated as being unreachable (16 hops away)
holddowns delays that make routers ignore updates to keep them from reinstating a dead route, impoves stability
triggered updates immediate and forced updates to routing tables made when things change
RIP Routing Information Protocol is a D/V protocol sending full table every 30 sec, good for small networks but not large... it use only hop count (15) as a metric. It will load balance up to 6 links of equal cost. AD=120. Uses 3 timers
How to configure RIP? # router rip
IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a Cisc proprietary D/V protocol designed as a RIP impovement. Max hop count 100 default -255, AD = 100. Uses a composite metric. uses 4 timers
RIP timers 1.) update timer sets update freq (default=30s) 2.) invalid timer sets time w/ no mention of route before the route is declared invalid (default=90s) 3.) flush timer sets time after invalid status before route is removed from the table (default=240s)
IGRP timers update =90s , invalid - 3x update, flush = 7 x update, holddown = (3x update )+ 10s
How to configure IGRP? router igrp <AS#>
What can be configured on a router to limit packets to specified segments for improved operation and simplified traffic patterns and help with security? Access Lists
When configuring Access list what are the differences between inbound and outband? inbound is from the segment to the router and outband is from the router to the segment
What are the different types of ACLs? Standard or Extended
What is do Standard ACLs filter by? Source IP address or Destination IP address What ACL filters by the above items?
What does the extended ACL filter by? Source & Destination IP, Transport protocol, and port What ACL filters by the above items?
Does order matter when adding conditions to an ACL? yes, the more specific test should be first
Where should ACLs be placed in a network? Standard ACLs should be placed near the destination Extended ACLs should be placed near the source - reduce traffic
By default do ACLs permit or deny all traffic unless specified in the conditions? by default ACLs deny all traffic
What are the ID number ranges for Standard, extended, and standard IPX ACLs? Standard 1-99 extended 100-199 IPX stand 800 -899
How do you configure a standard ACL? (the command) (config)#access-list <1-99> <permit|deny> <source address> <wildcard-address>
How do you configure a extended ACL? (config)#access-list <100-199> <permit|deny|dynamic> <protocol><source-add><destination-add><option><port>
How are wildcard addresses figured out? Take the subnet mask and subtract 255.255.255.255
How are subnet masked figured out from the wildcard address? Take the wild card address and flip the bits...0 -->255 255 --> 0 and any other numbers 255 - w = x
what are the options that can be used in configuring an extended list? eq, gt,lt, neq, range (range of port numbers), log (logs list #,protocol, source/dest, and port for any matches)
What show commands can be used for diagnosing access-lists? show access-list, show access-list <id#>, show ip access-list, show ip interface, show running-config
What are the security modes? Protect - just discards the traffic; Restrict - discard, logs, and counts; shutdown - discard, log, count, and shutdown
what does the command "switchport port-security mac-address sticky" do? it tells the interface o dynamically learn the Mac address
Created by: carly.files