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Unit 4

Moore's Law the observation that computing power roughly doubles every two years.
Big Data a broad term for datasets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate.
One-pager A business/corporate term for a one-page document that summarizes a large issue, topic or plan.
Encryption a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it.
Decryption a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
Cipher the generic term for a technique (or algorithm) that performs encryption
Caesar's Cipher a technique for encryption that shifts the alphabet by some number of characters.
Random Substitution Cipher an encoding technique that maps each letter of the alphabet randomly to different letters or characters.
Cracking encryption When you attempt to decode a secret message without knowing all the specifics of the cipher, you are trying to crack the encryption.
Vigenère cipher a method of encrypting text by applying a series of Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword.
Computationally Hard a "hard' problem for a computer is one in which it cannot arrive at a solution in a reasonable amount of time.
Modulo (or "mod") the name of the mathematical operation.
Asymmetric encryption a type of cryptographic based on algorithms that require two keys -- one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public (freely known to others).
Public key a value that can be used to encrypt a message. However, only when combined with a mathematically-related private key, can the message be decrypted.
Private key the complementary key to a public key that is used to decrypt a message.
Antivirus Software usually keeps big lists of known viruses and scans your computer looking for the virus programs in order to get rid of them.
DDoS Attack Distributed Denial of Service Attack. Typically a virus installed on many computers (thousands) activate at the same time and flood a target with traffic to the point the server becomes overwhelmed.
Firewall software that runs on servers (often routers) that only allows traffic through according to some set of security rules.
Phishing Scam a thief trying to trick you into sending them sensitive information. Typically these include emails about system updates asking you send your username and password, social security number or other things.
SSL/TLS Secure Sockets layer / Transport Layer Security - An encryption layer of HTTP that uses public key cryptography to establish a secure connection.
Virus a program that runs on a computer to do something the owner of the computer does not intend.
Created by: melvinm7