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SCHC Hematology

Define hematology. The study of formed cellular blood elements
What is the composition of whole blood? Plasma (55%) RBC's (45%) WBC/PLT (1%)
What is hematopoeisis? The formation of blood cellular components.
Normal reference ranges for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, and leukocytes in an adult female. Hgb: 12-16g/dL RBC: 4.0-5.0 * 10^6/uL HCT: 36-46% WBC: 4.5-11.0 * 10^9/L
Normal reference ranges for hemoglobin, leukocytes, hematocrit, and RBC in a child? WBC: 4.5-13.5 * 10^9/L HCT: 34-41% Hgb: 11.5-13.5 g/dL RBC: 3.9-5.3 x 10^6/uL
Normal reference ranges for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, and leukocytes for an newborn? RBC: 3.9-5.9 x 10^6/uL HCT: 42-60% Hgb: 135-200 g/L WBC: 9.0-30.0 * 10^9/L
What is hemostasis and which cell is primarily involved? Hemostasis is also known as clotting. The major cell involved is platelets.
What does H and H stand for? Hematocrit and hemoglobin
What is another name for platelets? Thrombocytes
What is another name for white blood cells? Leukocytes
What is the most numerous blood cell? RBC's
What's the reference range for platelets in an adult? 150 to 450 x 10^9/L
What are the normal reference ranges for WBC, RBC, hb, and hct? WBC: 4.5-11.0 * 10^9/L RBC: 4.0-5.0 x 10^6/uL HCT: 36-46% Hgb: 12-16 g/dL
Alterations in the formed elements in the blood are usually a result of? Disease rather than being the primary cause of disease. Variations in the formed elements in the blood are often the first sign that disease is occurring in the body.
What is the function of the hemocytoblast? It give rise to all the formed elements of the blood.
What is a right shift mean on the hb/o2 disassociation curve? Decreased oxygen affinity and higher release of O2.
What does a left shift mean on the hb/o2 binding capacity curve? Increased oxygen affinity and decreased release of O2.
What stain is used to visualize retics? Supravital stain
What portion of a retic is stained? The residual ribosomal RNA
What is the normal range for retics in a normal adult? 0.5 to 1.7%
Rouleaux Result of possible multiple myeloma, elevated fibrinogen or globulins in plasma. Looks like a stack of coins.
What does the Leubering-Rappaport shunt do? Accumulates 2,3-DPG.
What does the methemoglobin reductase pathway do? It keeps iron in the reduced ferrous state which allows for O2 binding to Hb molecules.
What does the phosphogluconate or hexose monophosphate pathway do? It produces pyridine which prevent oxidative injury to RBC's.
What does a deficiency in the HMP pathway cause? Denaturation of globin resulting in Heinz bodies in the RBC.
Embden-Meyerof pathway provides what for the RBC's? An energy source in the form of ATP and also NADH.
What can unconjugated (prehepatic) and conjugated (posthepatic) bilirubin indicate when found in the plasma? Extravascular hemolysis.
The iliac crest of the pelvis, the vertebrae, and sternum are all sites of blood cell production of? An adult
What are sites of active red marrow in a child? The distal long bones (ex. Femur)
Which organs are part of the hematopoietic system? The spleen, red marrow, liver, lymphnodes, and thymus.
In developing embryos where are blood cells made? In the yolk sac. The blood cells aggregate and create blood islands.
What surface marker is on the hematopoietic stem cells? CD34
What can polychromasia indicate? Either that a treatment for anemia is working or that there is increased hemolysis of the RBC's.
Describe polychromasia. Polychromatic cells are also referred to a retics. They are immature blood cells that are released into the blood stream. Usually occurs following acute or chronic hemorrhage, hemolysis, or as a regenerative rbc process.
Hypochromia Any rbc with >3um of central pallor. There is a direct relationship between hb in a rbc and the appearance of the stain. Any problem with hb synthesis can cause hypochromic cells.
Microcytes Diameter of rbc is < 6um, MCV < 80 fL, caused by hb synthesis defect or IDA, thalassemia
Macrocytes 9um or larger, MCv > 100 fL, caused by liver disease, post-splenectomy, megaloblastic conditions.
RDW means? Red cell distribution width. This measures the variation in size of the RBC's.
Anisocytosis. The changing of the size of the RBC.
Poikliocytosis The changing of the shape of the RBC.
MCV Mean corpuscular volume.
What is the haptoglobin level like during intravascular hemolysis? There is decrease haptoglobin because they are mostly bound to the hb being released during hemolysis.
Stercobilin. This is the pigment released int he stool after the heme has been broken down from urobiliogen.
Where does most of the destruction of Rbc's take place? The spleen via culling and pitting of RBC's.
Erythrophagocytosis. Erythrocytes that are aged or damaged are eaten by marcophages. Heme and globin are separated and iron separated from heme to be reused.
What magnifications do we us in hematology? 100x with oil immersion for blood smears and 40x for cell counts.
What does an increase in the neutrophil percentage indicate? Bacterial infection
What does increased lymphocytes indicate? viral infection
What does increased monocytes indicate int he peripheral blood? It could mean the person has AML, leukemia, or some kind of inflammatory disease.
What happens if you have a bad blood smear? Falsely increased monocytes, crenation, tear drop cells, rouleaux.
Which organ has the largest collection of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes? Spleen
What is the role of the liver regarding the RBC's? It steps in to do the job of the spleen if the spleen is overwhelmed or absent. But does not do it as well. It can also create RBC's if BM is unable to keep the balance.
What is pancytopenia? Reduction of all blood cell types including RBC (anemia), WBC (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombopenia).
What is the name for the phagocytic cells lining the liver? Kupffer cells
What hormone stimulates RBC production? erythropoietin.
How long does it take for retic to mature? 2 days
How long can RBC's live? 120 days
Where are nearly 1/3 of the body's platelet mass located and why? It is located in the spleen as a reserve in case of hemorrhage.
What regulates erthropoeisis? Iron supply, amino acis, and amounts of B vitamins.
What triggers EPO release and which organ releases it? Kidney releases EPO in response increased tissue demand for oxygen, hypoxia, and decreased o2 availability.
What does erythropoiesis require? proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as iron, b12, and folic acid.
How is intracellular iron stored? As hemosiderin and ferritin.
Earliest recognizable cell of the erythrocytic line? Rubriblast/Pronormoblast/proerythroblast.
How long does it take an erythrocyte to develop? 7 days
Aplastic anemia caused by destruction of inhibition of the red bone marrow.
Created by: 25109943