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Unit 2 Int Structure

This is all about Internet Infrastructure

(CIDR) Classless Inter-Domain Routing A notation in which the subnet mask is identified following the IP address
Address A number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network. Without unique " ? ", computers on the network could not reliably communicate.
Application Layer The seventh layer of the OSI Model. ______ Layer protocols enable software programs to negotiate formatting, procedural, security, synchronization, and other requirements with the network.
ARP (Addess Resolution Protocol) A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI model. _______ obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or mode, and then creates a local database that maps the MAC address to the hosts IP (logical) address.
Attenuation The loss of a signal's strength as it travels away from its source.
Backbone The part of a network to which segments and significant shared devices (such as routers, switches, and servers) connect. Sometimes referred to as "a network of networks" because of its role in interconnecting smaller parts of a LAN or WAN. Bandwidth
Bandwidth A measure of the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can transmit.
Baseband Is a transmission form in which (typically) digital signals are sent through direct (DC) pulses applied to the wire.
Bridges A network device that is used to send data between two different local area networks (LANs) or two segments of the same LAN.
Broadband Is a form of transmission in which signals are modulated as radio frequency (RF) analog waves that use different frequency ranges.
Broadcast A type of communication that is one-to-all
Checksum A method of error checking that determines if the contents of an arriving data unit match the contents of the data unit sent by the source.
Classful System Describes default subnet masks; wasteful and no longer used
Classless Addressing Allows variable length subnet masking which provides greater flexibility and more efficient use of the IPv4 address space
Client A computer on the network that requests resources or services from another computer on a network. In some cases, a ______ could also act as a server.
Client / Server Network A network that uses centrally administered computers, known as servers, to enable resources sharing for and to facilitate communication between the other computers on the network.
Cross Talk Occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable.
Data Link Layer The second layer in the OSI model. The ______ Layer bridges the networking media with the Network Layer. Its primary function is to divide the data it receives from the Network Layer into frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical Layer.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suire that manages the dynamic distribution of IP address on a network. Using _______ to assign IP addresses can nearly eliminate duplicate-addressing problems.
DNS (Domain Name System/Service) The _______ database does not rely on one file or even one server, but rather is distributed over several key computers across the Internet to prevent catastrophic failure if one or a few computers go down.
Dotted Decimal System (Dotted-Octet Numbering System) Shorthand method for discussing and configuring binary IP addresses. It is based on four 8-bit numbers.
Dynamic IP address An IP address that is assigned to a device upon request and may change when the DHCP lease expires or is terminated. BOOTP and DHCP are two ways of assigning dynamic IP addresses.
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) Waves that emanate from electrical devices or cables carrying electricity.
Encapsulate The process of wrapping one layer's PDU with protocol information so that it can be interpreted by a lower layer. For example, Data Link Layer protocols ______ Network Layer packets in frames.
Firewalls A software or hardware-based network security.
FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) A host name plus domain name that uniquely identifies a computer or location on a network.
Frame (1) A container for a chunk of data moving across a network. (2) A defined series of binary data that is the basic container for a discrete amount of data moving across a network. They are created at the Data Link Layer 2 of the OSI model.
FTP (FIle Transfer Protocol) An Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP. Uses ports 20 and 21
Fully Qualified Host Name A host name plus domain name that uniquely identifies a computer or location on a network.
Gateways Devices that are protocol converters; typically connect and convert between LANs and the mainframe or the Internet.
Hop A term used to describe each trip a unit of data takes from one connectivity device to another.
Host Any network device like a workstation or server with an IP address.
HTTPS Simply HTTP in conjunction with a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which adds encryption to the connection
Hub An electronic device that sits at the center of a star topology network, providing a common point for the connection of network devices.
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol The troubleshooting protocol for TCP/IP that provides feedback to IP in relation to network communications and is used by troubleshooting utilities such as Ping and TraceRT
Internet A complex WAN that connects LANs and clients around the globe.
Internetwork A type of LAN and/or WAN that connects a bunch of networks, or intranets.
Intranet Often an internetwork encompassing only networks under a single administrative domain; Very often used to explain a large corporations internetwork
IP (Internet Protocol) A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that operates in the Network layer of the OSI Model and provides information about how and where data should be delivered. It is the subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork.
Ipconfig The utility used to display TCP/IP addressing and domain name information in the Windows client operating systems.
IPv4 The Internet Protocol standard released in the 1980s and still commonly used on modern networks. Specifies 32-bit address composed of four octets.
IPv6 (IP version 6) A newer standard for IP addressing that is gradually replacing the current IPv4 (IP version 4).
Latency The delay between the transmission of a signal and its receipt.
Local Area Network (LAN) Is usually restricted to spanning a particular geographic locations such as an office building, a single department within a corporate office, or even a home office.
Logical Link Control (LLC) The aspect of the NIC that talks to the operating system, places data coming from the software into frames, and creates the FCS on each frame.
Loopback Address An IP address reserved for communicating from a node to itself (used mostly for troubleshooting purposes).
Media Access Control (MAC) The part of the NIC that remembers the NIC's own MAC address and attaches that address to outgoing frames.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A network that is larger than a LAN, typically connecting clients and servers from multiple buildings, but within a limited geographic area.
netstat -a You can type this command at a command prompt to see all active running sessions.
Network A group of computers and other devices (such as printers) that are connected by and can exchange data via some type of transmission media, such as a cable, a wire, or the atmosphere.
Network Interface Card (NIC) Traditionally, an expansion card that enables a PC to link physically to a network. Modern computers now use built-in ones, no longer requiring physical cards.
Network Operating System (NOS) The software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.
Network Protocol A computer language that systems on a network use to communicate with one another
Node A computer or other device connected to a network, which has a unique address and is capable of sending or receiving data.
Noise The unwanted signals, or interference, from sources near network cabling, such as electrical motors, power lines, and radar.
Octet One of the 4 bytes that are separated by periods and together make up an IPv4 address.
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model A model for understanding and developing computer-to-computer communication developed in the 1980s by ISO (International Organization for Standards).
Packet A discrete unit of information sent from one node on a network to another.
Peer-to-Peer Network Computers that are hooked together with no centralized authority. Each computer is equal and can act as both a server and a workstation.
PING (Packet Internet Groper) A TCP/IP troubleshooting utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network.
Point-To-Multipoint Transmission involves one transmitter and multiple receivers.
Point-to-Point A data transmission that involves one transmitter and one receiver.
Port Number The address on a host where an application makes itself available to incoming data.
Private Address An IP address used only on an organization's internal network. Certain IP address ranges are reserved for _______. _______ cannot be used to communicate over the interent.
Public Address An IP address that is valid for use on public networks, such as the Internet. And organization assigns its hosts _______ from the range of addresses assigned to it by Internet numbering authorities.
RDP Remote Desktop Protocol Used to remotely control Windows systems and is inherently included in Windows XP and later operating on port 3389
RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) Frequency Interference) A type of EMI. It's electromagnetic interference caused by radio waves.
Router A device that connects separate networks and forwards a packet from one network to another based only on the network address for the protocol being used.
Segment A part of a network. Usually, a ______ is composed of a group of nodes that share the same communications channel for all their traffic.
Server A computer on the network that manages shared resources.
Session A connection for data exchange between two parties.
Socket Port number in combination with the destination IP address
Static IP Addess An IP address that is manually assisgned to a device and remains constant until it is manually changed.
Subnet Each independent network in a TCP/IP network in which all nodes shares a network addressing component and a fixed amount of bandwidth.
Subnet Mask Another 32-bit binary number that is used by both routers and host to distinguish between the network and host portions of the address
Switch A device that filters and forwards traffic based on some criteria. A bridge and router are both examples of these.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) A core protocol of the TCP/IP suite. _______ belongs to the Transport layer and provides reliable data delivery services.
Telnet A teminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol. _______ resides in the Application layer of the OSI model.
Throughput Is the measure of how much data is transmitted during a given period of time.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Operates at Layer 4 (Transport) of the OSI seven-layer model. It is a connection-oriented protocol.
Transport Layer Primarily responsible for beginning to create packages of data to send from source and to destination
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Not reliable and instead is categorized as "connectionless"
Wide Area Network (WAN) A network that spans a long distance and connects two or more LANs.
Created by: FilthyCasual