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WGU BIOCHEM Module 1

DNA and RNA

central dogma of molecular biology the understanding that DNA is used to make RNA and RNA is used to make proteins
transcription the process of the cell making an RNA copy of a DNA section
what 4 nucleotides (monomers) make up DNA guanine, cytosine, & adenine, thymine
what 4 nucleotides (monomers) make up RNA guanine, cytosine, & adenine, uracil
Each nucleotide includes a ________, a ________, and one or more ____________. nitrogen-containing base, a five-carbon sugar (pentose), phosphates
Nucleic acids are read in what direction 5' -> 3'
semi-conservative copies of DNA contain one old strand and one new strand
what is DNA polymerase a protein that synthesizes new DNA (makes a polymer of DNA nucleotides)
how does DNA polymerase work matches up individual nucleotides to parental sequence to make sure they are a correct pair, then bonds them
RNA primer forms a handle on a single-stranded DNA making it double-stranded so DNA polymerase can attach
DNA ligase seals the nicks left after RNA primer is removed during DNA replication to create a continuous strand
The ______ strand of DNA gives the sequence of the RNA to be made, but the ________ strand is the DNA strand used to make the RNA. coding, template
the primary enzyme involved in transcription is ____________ RNA polymerase
how does RNA polymerase work reads the template strand of DNA and creates new RNA transcript by bonding together individual RNA nucleotides that are complementary to the DNA template
________ gene expression = ___________ transcripts made low, few; high, many
splicing process in which introns are cut out, and remaining eons are joined together = making mature RNA ready for translation
introns intervening sequences
exons expressed sequences
translation nucleic acid "language" of nucleotides processes into the protein "language" of amino acids
codons 3 base units in the mRNA; the amino acid specified by each set of three bases defines the genetic code
anticodon 3 bases on the tRNA that are complementary to the codons
when codon and anticodon meet and base pair, the amino acid is incorporated into the growing protein chain by a _______________ peptide bond
polypeptides protein products of translation
mutations that are changes of a single base pair point mutations
point mutations that result in no change in amino acid sequence due to some redundancy in the genetic code silent mutations
point mutations that change a single base pair in a codon such that the codon now encodes a different amino acid missense mutations
point mutations that change a single base pair in a codon to a stop codon that terminates translation nonsense mutations
insertions or deletions of one or more base pairs lead to _________________ that disrupt the coding of a protein frameshift mutations
base excision repair repair enzymes removed the damaged nucleotide. gap is filled by DNA polymerase. nick is sealed by DNA ligase
nucleotide excision repair repair enzymes remove a section of DNA that contains the damaged nucleotide. gap is filled by DNA polymerase. nick is sealed by DNA ligase
thymine dimer mutation caused by uv radiation that fuses two adjacent thymines together. can only be fixed by nucleotide excision repair
which repair pathway is used for mistakes in replication mismatch repair
which repair pathway is used for double-stranded breaks homologous recombination (and for extreme cases only, non-homologous end-joining)
genes are located on ______________ and come in pairs in most human cells chromosomes
each copy of a gene is known as an _____________ allele
DNA is wrapped around proteins called _________________ to prevent tangling histones
the combination of DNA and histone proteins creates nucleosomes
histones promote coiling of the nucleosomes into a larger ____________ fiber chromatin
the chromatin fibers are folded into large loops that eventually form _______________ chromosomes
human beings have _______ pairs of chromosomes 23 (1-22, and either an XX or a XY for the sex chromosome)
when two alleles are identical, the genotype is ______________ homozygous
if two alleles code for two variations of that trait the genotype is ________________ heterozygous
pedigree chart: only _________ traits can have carriers recessive
pedigree chart: assume that an unaffected/ unrelated mate (does/does not) carry the trait does not
incomplete dominance produces different phenotypes based on the combination of alleles present (red, white, pink)
codominance occurs when the effects of both alleles appear in the heterozygote (red, white, red-white)
x-linked inheritance the most common form of sex-linked inheritance (ex: red-green color blindness)
pedigree analysis decision tree: x-linked recessive / are carriers present? yes (2 parents that are unaffected, but have an affected child)
pedigree analysis decision tree: x-linked recessive / are only males affected? yes
pedigree analysis decision tree: autosomal recessive / are carriers present? yes (2 unaffected parents with an affected child)
pedigree analysis decision tree: autosomal recessive / are only males affected? no
pedigree analysis decision tree: x-linked dominant / are carriers present? no
pedigree analysis decision tree: x-linked dominant / do ALL the daughters of an affected male have the trait yes
pedigree analysis decision tree: autosomal dominant / are carriers present? no
pedigree analysis decision tree: autosomal dominant / do ALL the daughters of an affected male have the trait no
_____________________ is a technique that copies a chosen segment of DNA polymerase chain reaction
_____________, ________________, and ___________________ are the steps in the PCR process denaturation, annealing, and elongation
explain the similarities/difference in the coding strand from the mRNA sequence sequence is the same except T bases have been replaced with U bases
explain the similarities/differences in the template strand from the mRNA sequence sequence is complementary and 3' to 5'
when histones pack tightly, (transcription/translation) is decreased transcription
Created by: kinseycharles