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chapter 1

TermDefinition
4-Pin 12-V connector an auxiliary motherboard connector, which us used for extra 12-V power to the processor.
8-Pin 12-V connector and auxiliary motherboard connector witch is used for extra 12-V power to the processor, providing more power than older 4-Pin auxiliary connector.
20-Pin P1 Connector The main motherboard power connector used in early ATX systems.
24-Pin P1 Connector Is the main motherboard power connector used today.
Accelerometer A type of gyroscope used in mobile devices to sense the physical position of the device.
Airplane Mode When a device has all wireless technologies turned off.
All-in-one Computer A personal computer that combines the monitor and computer case into one with laptop and desktop components.
Analog continuous signal with infinite variations.
ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) the most commonly used form factor today.
ATX 12V Power Supply A power supply that provides a 4-Pin 12-V power cord.
Audio Port A system usually contains three or more of these and are also called sound ports for a microphone, audio in, audio out, and stereo out. They can transmit analog or digital data.
Base Station A tower that controls a cellular network.
BIOS(Basic Input/Output System) firmware used by older motherboards embedded on firmware chips.
BIOS Setup Firmware used to change the motherboard configurations or settings.
Bluetooth a short-range wireless technology to connect two devices in a small personal network.
Cellular Network consists of geographic areas of coverage called cells.
Chassis A computer case for any type of computer.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) does most of the processing of data and instructions for the system.
DB15 port A 15 pin, analog video port popular for many years.
DB9 port A male 9-PIN or 25-Pin port on a computer system used by slower I/O devices such as a mouse or modem. Data travels serially one bit at a time through the port. Serial Ports are sometimes configured as COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4.
D15 A 15 pin, analog video port popular for many years.
Desktop Case Lies flat and sometimes serves double-duty as a monitor stand.
Digital series of binary values in 1s and 0s
DIMM (Dual inline memory module) slots that hold memory modules.
DIMM (dual inline memory module) pp.
DisplayPort Transmits digital video and audio and is slowly replacing VGA and DVI ports on personal computers.
Docking Port Provided on the bottom or side of some Notebooks and Laptops to connect a Docking Station.
Docking Station Provides Ports to allow a device to easily connect to a full-sized monitor, keyboard, AC power adapter, and other peripheral devices.
Dual-Voltage Selector Switch contained on most PSU on the back of the case where you can switch the imput voltage to the power supply to 115V (US) or 220V (Other Countries).
DVI Port (Digital Video Interface) port transmits digital or analog video. There are 3 types of DVI ports.
ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) is another name for static electricity which can damage chips and destroy motherboards even though it might not be felt or seen with the naked eye.
Expansion Card a circuit board that provides more ports than those provided by the motherboard.
ExpressCard A type of card used before USB devices became popular and offered to connect additional peripheral devices and ports. Uses the PCIe bus or USB 2.0 standard.
ExpressCard/34 a 34mm wide ExpressCard that is usable in ExpressCard/54 slots as well. Fully hot-pluggable, hot-swappable, and supports auto-configuration.
ExpressCard/54 A 54mm wide ExpressCard that is fully hot-pluggable, hot-swappable, and supports auto-configuration.
External SATA Port (eSATA) is used by and external hard drive or other device using the eSATA interface. Faster then FireWire.
FireWire Port (IEEE 1394 Port) Used for high-speed multimedia devices such as digital camcorders.
Firmware Programs and data stored on the motherboard
fitness monitor A wearable computer device that can measure heart rate, count pool laps, or miles jogged or biked, and a host of other activities.
Geotracking When a device reports its position at least twice a day and usually more often making it possible for companies to track your device's whereabouts.
GPS A wearable computer device that can measure heart rate, count pool laps, or miles jogged or biked, and a host of other activities.
Gyroscope A device that contains a disk that is free to move and can respond to gravity as the device is moved.
HDD(Hard Disk Drive) permanent storage used to hold data and programs.
HDMI Port (Hight-Definition Multimedia Interface) port transmits digital video and audio and is often used to connect to home theater equipment.
Heat Sink Consists of metal fins that draw heat away from a component.
Hotspot Creating a Wi-Fi network with a mobile device's cellular network to allow other devices access the internet.
Infrared (IR) is a wireless connection that requires an unobstructed "line of sight" between transmitter and receiver. Commonly used for TV remote controls.
IEE 1394 port A port used for high-speed multimedia devices such as camcorders.
ifared (IR) An outdated wireless technology
internal componets The main components installed in a computer case
keybourd blacklight A feature on some keyboards where the keys light up on the keyboard
Laptop Designed for portability and can be just as powerful as a desktop computer. Includes more than half of personal computers purchased today and 30% of personal computers currently in use.
Lightning Port A connector for power and communication for newer mobile Apple products.
Loopback Plug Is used to test a port in a computer or other device to make sure the port is working and might also test the throughput or speed of the port. Commonly used with network and USB ports.
LPT (Line Printer Terminal) port Also known as parallel port. An outdated female 25 pin port on a computer that transmitted data in a parallel, 8 bits at a time, and was usually used with a printer. It has been replaced by USB ports
main board Also known as motherboard and system board. The main board in the computer.
Micro ATX A form factor reducing the total cost of a system by reducing the number of expansion slots on the motherboard, reducing the power supplied to the board, and allowing for smaller case size.
microprocessor Same as CPU
microUSB Smaller than a standard USB and used usually for mobile devices to charge and pass information.
miniUSB Smaller than a standard USB and microUSB and used usually for mobile devices to charge and pass information.
Modem Port (RJ-11 Port) used to connect dial-up phone lines to computers.
Molex connector a 4-pin connector used for older IDE (PATA or Parallel ATA) drives and some newer SATA drives, providing +5 v or +12 v to the drive.
Motherboard The larges and most important circuit board in the computer
Multimeter A general-purpose tool that can measure several characteristics of electricity in a variety of devices. Some can measure voltage, current, resistance, or continuity.
Near field communication (NFC) A wireless technology that establishes a communication link between 2 NFC devices that are within 4 inches of each other
Netbook A smaller and less expensive personal computer than the laptop with fewer features. Normally do not have Optical Drives.
Network Port Also called Ethernet Port or an RJ-45 port, is used by a network cable to connect to the wired network.
NFC (Near Field Communication) is a wireless technology that establishes a communication link between two NFC devices that are within 4 inches of each other. Used for key-fobs some times.
optical connector A connector used with a fiber optic cable
Parallel Port (LPT Port) is a 25-pin female port use by older printers and replaced by USB.
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) is a type of slot on the motherboard used to connect expansion cards.
PCIe (PCI Express) faster versions of PCI slots on the motherboard requiring more power
PCIe 6/8-Pin Connector A connector used by high-end video cards using PCIe x16 slots to provide extra voltage to the card and can accommodate a 6-hole or 8-hole port. The connector is split into a 6-Pin and 2-Pin to get a total of 8-Pins when both connected.
PCIe 6-Pin Connector A connector that provides and extra +12 V for high-end video cards using PCI Express, Version 1 standard.
PCIe 8-Pin Connector A connector that provides and extra +12 V for high-end video cards using PCI Express, Version 2
PCMCIA cards (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). Slot and card standards designed and supported by the PCMCIA.
Phablet A device that has the same capapilities of a smart phone or tablet but is smaller than a tablet and larger than a smart phone.
POST (Power-On Self Test) is a series of tests performed by the startup UEFI/BIOS when you first turn on a computer. It determines if startup UEFI/BIOS can communicate correctly with essential hardware components required for a successful boot.
POST Diagnostic Card A motherboard test card that can help discover and report computer errors and conflicts before the OS is launched.
Power Supply A box inside the computer case that receives power and converts it to provide power to the motherboard and other installed devices. Power supplies provide 3.3-, 5-, and 12-V DC. Also called a power supply unit (PSU).
Power Supply Tester Used to measure the output of each connector coming from the power supply.
Power Supply unit (PSU) aka power suply
processor central processing unit (CPU).
PS/2 Port (mini-DIN port) a round 6-pin port used by keyboard or mouse. The color of the port determines the device intended for the port, purple for keyboards and green for a mouse.
PSU (Power Supply Unit) is a box installed in a corner of the computer case that receives and converts the house current so that components inside the case can use it.
RAM (Random access Memory) temporary storage for data and instruction as they are being processed by the CPU.
RJ-11 port A phone line connection or port found on modems, telephones, and house phone outlets. It looks much like an RJ-45 but is noticeably smaller.
RJ-45 port A port that looks like a large phone jack and is used by twisted-pair cable to connect to a weird network adapter or other hardware devices
SATA (Serial ATA) standard that is used by most hard drives, optical drives, and tape drives today.
SATA Power Connector a 15-Pin connector used for SATA (Serial ATA) drives that can provide +3.3V (seldomly), +5V, and +12V
screen orientation The layout or orientation of the screen that is either portrait or landscape
serial ata (sata An ATAPI (Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface) for hard-drives, optical drives, and other drives that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-connector cable and is easier to configure than PATA (Parallel ATA) system.
Serial Port (DB9 Port) a 9-pin male port used on older computers and replaced by USB. Sometimes used to hookup to monitor and manage a router.
SIM Card (Subscriber Identity Module) Card is inserted into a device and keeps information about your subscription to a GSM network
smart camera A digital camera that has embedded computing power to make decisions about the content of the photos or video it records, including transmitting alerts over a wired or wireless network when it records certain content.
smart phone A cell phone that includes abilites to send text messages, text messages with photos, videos , or other multimedia content, surf the web, manage email, play games, take photos and videos, and download and use apps.
SO-DIMMs (Small Outline DIMMs) are used in Laptops and are smaller memory modules than DIMMs.
S/PDIF Sound Port (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) connects to an external home theater audio system, providing digital audio output and the best signal quality. Always carry digital audio and can work with electrical or optical cable.
Startup BIOS Firmware used to start the computer
S-Video Port a 4-pin or 7-pin round video port sometimes used to connect a television.
System BIOS Firmware used to manage essentioal devices such as the keyboard, mouse, hard drive, and monitor before the OS is launched.
S-Video port A 4-pin or 7-pin round video port that sends two signals over the cable, one for color and the other for brightness, and, is used by some high-end TVs and video equipment.
tablet A computing device with a touch screen that is larger than a smart phone and has functions similar to a smart phone.
Tethered Connection a device via cable to the internet by allowing another mobile device's cellular network to carry the original device.
Thunderbolt Port Transmits video, data, and power on the same port and cable and is popular with apple computers. Up to 6 peripherals can use this same port.
touch pad A common pointing device on a laptop computer.
Tower Case Sits upright and can be as high as two feet and has room for several drives.
USB optical drive An external optical drive that connects to a computer via a USB port.
USB to Bluetooth adapter A device that plugs into a USB port to connect to Bluetooth device
USB Port (Universal Serial Bus) a multipurpose I/O port that comes in several sizes and is used by many different devices.
USB to RJ-45 dongle A adapter that plugs into a USB port and provides an RJ-45 port for a network cable to connect to a weird network.
USB to Wi-Fi dongle A adapter that plugs into a USB port and provides an wireless connectivity to a Wi-Fi network.
VGA Port (Video Graphics Array) or DB-15, DB15 port, HD15 port, or DE15 port, is a 15-pin D-shaped female port that transmits analog video.
Video Memory embedded RAM chips contained in some video cards.
VGA (Video Graphics Array) port A 15-pin analog video port poplular for many years. Also called DB15 port, DE15 port, or HD15port.
video memory Memory used by the video controller. The memory might be contained on a video card or be part of system memory. When part of system memory, the memory is dedicated by Windows to video.
wearable technology device A device, such as smart watch, wristband, arm band, eyeglasses, headset, or clothing, that can perform computing tasks, including making phone calls, sending text messages, recording and transmitting data, and checking email.
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) common name for standards for a local wireless network.
Created by: tsuchi