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Physio Psych

Physio Psych Unit 1

TermDefinition
Behavioral Neuroscience The branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and the body, particularly the brain; most modern term for biological psychology
Mind-Brain Problem Deals with what the mind is and what its relationship is to the brain
Monism The idea that the mind and the body consist of the same substance
Materialistic Monism The position that the body and mind and everything else are physical
Dualism The idea that the mind and the brain are separate
Model proposed mechanism for how something works
Empiricism method of gathering information through observation rather than logic, intuition, and other means
Localization the idea that specific areas of the brain carry out specific functions
Equipotentiality the idea that the brain functions as an undifferentiated whole; according to this view the extent of damage, not location, was the cause of function lost
Gene the biological unit that directs cellular processes and transmits inherited characteristics
Zygote fertilized egg; undergoes rapid cell division and development on its way to becoming a functioning organism
Embryo after the zygote has gone through cell division
Fetus organism before birth
DNA double-stranded chain of chemical molecules that look like a ladder that has been twisted around itself
Alleles different versions of a gene
Dominant Allele will produce its effects regardless of which allele it is paired with on the other chromosome
Recessive Allele will have an influence only when it is paired with the same allele
Phenotype an observable characteristic
Genotype combination of alleles
X-Linked characteristic produced by an unpaired gene on the X chromosome
Polygenic characteristics that are determined by multiple genes
Heritability the percentage of variation in a characteristic that can be attributed to genetic factors
Vulnerability genes contribute a predisposition for a disorder, which may or may not exceed the threshold required to produce the disorder
Neurons specialized cells that convey sensory information into the brain; carry out operations involved in thought, feeling, and action; and transmit commands out into the body to control muscles and organs
Cell Body soma; most prominent part of the neuron
Motor Neuron carries commands to the muscles and organs; particularly useful for demonstrating the structure and functions that all neurons have in common
Dendrites extensions that branch out from the cell body to receive information from other neurons
Axon extends like a tail from the cell body and carries information to other locations
Myelin Sheath wrapped around the axon
Axon Terminals swellings on the end of the branches of the axon; contains neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters neuron releases these to communicate with a muscle, organ, or the next neuron in a chain
Sensory Neurons carry information from the body and from the outside world into the brain and spinal cord
Multipolar Neurons extend in several directions from the cell body; motor neurons are these
Unipolar Neurons one single stalk from the cell body that divides into two branches
Bipolar Neurons axon on one side of the cell body and dendritic process on the other
Interneuron connect one neuron to another in the same part of the brain or spinal cord; multipolar but axon appears to be missing, and if they do have them they are very short distances; produces a reflex
Polarization there is a difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the cell.
Voltage a difference in electrical charge between two points, such as the poles of a battery or the inside and outside of a cell
Resting Potential the difference in charge between the inside and the outside of a neuron at rest
Ions atoms that are charged because they have lost or gained one or more electrons; create the charge in neurons
Force of Diffusion causes ions to move through the membrane to the side where they are less concentrated
Electrostatic Pressure causes ions to be repelled from the side that is similarly charged and attracted to the side that is oppositely charged
Sodium-Potassium Pump consists of large protein molecules that move sodium ions through the cell membrane to the outside and potassium ions back inside
Glial Cells nonneural cells that provide a number of supporting functions to neurons; one of their most important functions is to increase the speed of conduction in neurons
Myelin a fatty tissue hat wraps around the axon (like a jellyroll) to insulate it from the surrounding fluid and from other neurons; produced in the brain and spinal cord by oligodendrocytes and in the rest of nervous system by Schwann Cells
Oligodendrocytes a glial cell in the brain and spinal cord that produces myelin
Schwann Cells a cell that produces myelin in the nervous system
Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath
Saltatory Conduction a process where at the place of exposure on the nodes of Ranvier and there is plentiful supply of sodium neurons, the graded potential triggers an action potential. Thus causing action potentials to jump from node to node in this form of transmission
Synapse the connection between 2 neurons
Synaptic Cleft term used to describe how the neurons are not in direct physical contact at the synapse but are separated by a small gap
Presynaptic Neuron the neuron that is transmitting to another
Postsynaptic Neuron the receiving neuron
Vesicles the terminals in membrane-enclosed containers at chemical synapses where neurotransmitters are stored
Exocytosis process in which the membrane of the membrane of the neuron fuses with clustered vesicles cause the membrane to open and release a transmitter that diffuses across the cleft
Ionotropic Receptors open the channels on the membrane of a neuron directly to produce the immediate reactions required for muscle activity and sensory processing
Metabotropic Receptors open channels on the membrane of a neuron indirectly and slowly produce longer-lasting effects
Hypopolarization partial depolarization; is excitatory and facilitates the occurrence of an action potential
Hyperpolarization increased polarization; is inhibitory and makes an action potential less likely to occur
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) when the receptors open sodium channels producing hypopolarization of the dendrites and cell body
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) when potassium moves out of the neuron or chloride moves in it produces a hyperpolarization of the dendrites and cell body
Axon Hillock where the axon joins the cell body
Spatial Summation combines potentials occurring simultaneously at different locations on the dendrites and cell body
Temporal Summation combines potentials arriving a short time apart, from either the same or separate inputs; possible because a local potential lasts for a few milliseconds
Reuptake a process in which transmitters are taken back into the terminals by membrane proteins called transporters; they are repacked in vesicles and used again
Presynaptic Excitation/Presynaptic Inhibition when at the axoaxonic synapse a 3rd neuron releases a transmitter onto the terminals of the presynaptic neuron, which increases or decreases, the presynaptic neuron’s release of neurotransmitter onto the postsynaptic
Autoreceptors located on the presynaptic terminals that sense the amount of transmitter in the cleft; if the amount is excessive the presynaptic neuron reduces its output
Dale's Principle erroneous belief that a neuron was capable of releasing only one neurotransmitter
Corelease process in which neurotransmitters are packaged in the same vesicles; doesn’t mean they’re always released equally
Contransmission process in which transmitters are in separate vesicles; vesicles containing different transmitters in the same terminal differ in sensitivity to calcium
Neural Networks are groups of neurons that function together to carry out a process; where the most complex neural processing occurs
The Human Connectome Project a large scale, multi-university effort to map the brain’s circuits; use four scanning techniques, behavioral measures, and genetic analysis to determine the brain’s anatomical and functional connectivity
Acetylcholine transmitter at muscles; involved in learning, etc
Serotonin involved in mood, sleep and arousal, aggression, depression, ocd, and alcoholism
dopamine contributes to movement control and promotes reinforcing effects of food, sex, and abused drugs; involved in schizophrenia and parkinson's
Nonrepinephrine a hormone released during stress. Functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain to increase arousal and attentiveness to events in the environment; involved in depression
epinephrine stress hormore related to norepinephrine; plays a major role as a neurotransmitter in the brain
glutamate the principle excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. Vitally involed in learning and schizophrenia
gaba the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter. responds to alcohol and deficiency causes epilepsy
endorphins neuromodulators that reduce pain and enhance reinforcement
substance P transmitter in neurons sensitive to pain
Neuropeptide Y initiates eating and produces metabolic shifts
nitric oxide 1 or 2 known gas transmitters, along with carbon monoxide. Can serve as a retrograde transmitter, influencing the presynaptic neuron's release of neurotransmitter
Central Nervous System includes the brain and spinal cord
Nerve a bundle of axons running together like a multiwire cable; used in peripheral nervous system
Tract term for bundles of axons in the CNS
Nucleus term in the CNS for a group of cell bodies
Ganglion term in the peripheral nervous system for a group of cell bodies
The Cerebral Hemispheres Large, wrinkled hemispheres that dominate the brain’s appearance
Longitudinal Fissure runs the length of the brain and separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres
Cortex wrinkled outer layer of the brain; mostly consists of cell bodies giving it its grayish appearance; layered and columnas arrangement of cells
Gyrus ridge on brain
Sulcus fissure on brain
Dorsal direction descirbing towards back if human was on all fours
Ventral towards stomach if person was on all fours
Anterior towards front
Posterior towards back
Lateral towards side
Medial towards middle
Superior higher up
Inferior lower down
Coronal planes of section; divides brain vertically from side to side (L/M and D/V)
Sagittal plane of section; divides vertically in A-P direction (A/P and D/V)
Horizontal plane of section; divides top to bottom (A/P and L/M)
Frontal Lobe in front of (anterior to) the central sulcus; above (superior to) the lateral fissure; movement and complex behavior, Broca's Area, personality, voluntary movement
Parietal Lobe behind (posterior to) the central sulcus; body sensations, perception, spatial localization; damage of posterior causes neglect of objects, people, and activity on the opposite side
Occipital Lobe at the back (Posterior) of the brain; visual cortex, map of visual space, process individual components of a scene
Temporal located on the sides (laterally) of the brain; auditory cortex, language, Wernicke's area, visual identification; damage causes difficulty recognizing things
Thalamus below the lateral ventricles and located in the forebrain; sensory processing, arousal and it receives info from all senses except olfaction, and then relays this info to the cortex; first stopping point
Hypothalamus beneath the thalamus in the forebrain; emotions and motivations; controls emotions and motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity
Pineal Gland posterior to the thalamus in the forebrain; "seat of the soul," secretes melatonin and regulates daily rhythms in the body
Corpus Callosum brain structure that is a band of fibers at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure; shares info between hemispheres; it is severed in split-brain treatment of epilepsy
Ventricles brain structures that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the circulatory fluid of the CNS
Anterior Commisure Secondary smaller band of connecting fibers to the corpus callosum
Hydrocephalus too much CSF in the brain
Midbrain secondary roles in vision, audition, and movement; includes brainstem
Brain Stem includes posterior parts of the forebrain (thalamus, hypothalamus, etc.) the midbrain, and the hindbrain
Superior colliculi part of midbrain; helps guide eye movements and gaze fixation
Inferior colliculi part of midbrain; helps locate the direction of sounds
Reticular formation spans midbrain and hindbrain; attention, reflexes, muscle tone
Substantia Nigra part of midbrain; projects to the basal ganglia to integrate movements, and make dopamine
Ventral tegemented area part of midbrain; plays a role in rewarding efforts of food, sex, and pleasure
Hindbrain helps in basic functions
Medulla part of hindbrain; controls esstential life processes such as cardiovascular activity and breathing
Pons part of hindbrain; sleep and arousal; part of the reticular formation
Cerebellum part of the hindbrain; refines motor movements, controlling speed, intensity, and direction
Spinal Cord part of the CNS; a cable of neurons that carries sensory info to the brain, and motor commands to the muslces and organs
Meninges form of protection with 3 layers: dura (tough outside), arachnoid (blood-brain barrier), and pia (on brain surface)
Blood-brain barrier limits passed of substances between blood and brain
Peripheral Nerve System Contains Cranial Nerves on the underside of the brain and spinal nerves that connect sides of the spinal cord at each vertebra
Somatic Nervous System subsystem of PNS; motor and sensory neurons that allow us to sense and react to the environment
Automatic Nervous System subsystem of PNS; controls smooth muscles, glands, heart, and other organs
Sympatheic Nervous System subsystem of ANS; fight of flight
Parasympathetic Nervous System subsystem of ANS; slows activity of organs; increases digestion
Proliferation neurons divide and multiply in ventricular zone (neurogenesis)
Migration neurons move up radial glial cells towards final locations
Circuit Pruning synaptic plasticity, which means active synapses are strengthened while inactive ones are removed; decreases over time
Reorganization shift in connection that changes the area's function; provides compensation for peripheral chnages
Stroke due to internal forces is caused by artery blockage (ischemic) or rupture (hemorrhagic); damage is due to oxygen and glucose deprivation, excitosis, and edema
Traumatic Brain Injury due to external force that is caused by a blow to the head, penetration, or sudden changes in speed
Regeneration the regrowth of severed axons; myelin orovides a guide tube to grow through
Neurogenesis birth of new neurons; occurs in several areas in the adult brain: most extensive in hippocampus and near lateral ventricles; appears to support learning (in hippocampus) and odor discrimination (olfactory bulbs)
Compensation uninjured tissues takes over functions of lost areas
Reorganization functions are taken over by other more distant areas; typically by cells in an adjacent area but may involve the other hemisphere; more likely if damage occurs early in life
Neuron Growth Enhancers growth enhancer that induces axons to grow from the undamaged side
Scaffolding process where glial cells provide guide tubes
Golgi Stains staining technique; highlight individual neurons
Myelin Stains staining technique; emphasize white matter
Nissi Stains stainging technique; emphasize the cell bodies of neurons
Autoradiography makes neurons stand out visibly just as stainging does but it also reveals which neurons are active, and this info can be correlated with the behavior that the animal was engaged in
Immunocytochemistry uses antibodies to a dye to identify cellular compoenets such as receptors, neurotransmitters, or enzymes
In Situ Hybridization uses radioactive complementary DNA, which docks with messenger RNA, to locate gene activity
Light Microscope sees cell bodies, dendrites, axons, and large organelles in neurons; limited capability due to the nature of light
Transmission Electron Microscope works by passing a beam of electrons through a thin slice of tissue; different parts of the tissue block or pass electrons to different degrees, so the electrons produce an image of the object on photographic film
Scanning Electron Microscope the beam of electrons induces the specimen to emit electrons itself, and these are captured like the conventional microscope collects reflected light; 3-D objects
Electroencephalogram (EEG) records the combined activity from many neurons by using multiple electrodes; good temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution; best used to detect changes in arousal
Event-Related Potential computer averages the EEG over several stimulus presentations; cancels out the "noise" of other brain activity
Stereotaxic Atlas shows the location of the key structures on images of a series of brain sections
Stereotaxic Instrument used to place an electrode or oher device at a precise location on the bain
Electrode can be used to stimulate neurons or record their activity
Cannula can be used to introduce chemicals into the brain to observe their effects; or to extract fluids in a procedure called micro-dialysis
Ablation involves the removal of brain tissue; can be done with a scalpel
Aspiration more precise technique of removing brain tissure that allows access to deeper structures
Lesioning damages neural tissue
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation uses magnetic coil to induce voltage in brain tissue; noninvasive
Computed Tomography (CT) dye is injected into the blood; series of x-rays from different angles; images reflect the density of blood vessels in each area; computer combines images to create series of horizontal cross sections of brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans work by measuring the radio frequency waves emitted by the hydrogen atom when they are subjected to a strong magnetic field
Diffusing Tensor Imaging variant of MRI; measures the movement of water molecules; because water moves easily along the length of axons, this technique is useful for imaging brain pathways and measuring their quality
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) injecting radioactive substance into the bloodstream, which is taken up by active parts of the brain; scan detects concentrations of radioactivity where activity is high
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting the increase in oxygen levels in active structures
Family Studies both heredity and environment are confounded because people who share genes also share environment
Adoption Studies not true experiements because adoption can't be manipulated; referred to as natural experiments
In Vitro Fertilization can provide greater control of early environmental effects
Concordance Rate a useful measure for identifying genetic influence in disorders; the frequency that relatives share a characteristic
Genetic Engineering an experimental technique; involves manipulation of genes or their functioning
Drug any substance that changes the body or its functioning
Agonists mimics or enhances a neurotransmitter
Antagonists may reduce release of neurotransmitter or block receptors
Psychoactive drugs drugs that have psychological effects, such as anxiety relief or hallucinations
Addiction identified by preoccupation with obtaining a drug, compulsive use inspite of adverse consequences, and a high tendency to relapse
Withdrawal negative reaction that occurs when drug use is stopped
Tolerance person becomes less responsive to drugs requiring increasing amounts of the drug to produce the same results; significant reason for overdose
Opiates analgesic (pain-relief), hypnotic (sleep-inducing), and euphoria (strong feelings of happiness); have high abuse potential since they mimic endogenous opiods (endorphins)
Depressants sedation, anxiolytic (anxiety reduction), and hypnotic (sleep-inducing); reduce nervous system activity
Stimulants drug that causes increased arousal and alertness; euphoria; activate CNS to produce arousal, increased alterness; relieves fatigue, decreases appetite, and elevates mood
Psychedelics drug that causes perceputal distortions and hallucinations
Marijuana drug that causes temporary memory, cognitive, and IQ deficits; impaired prefrontal functioning
Heroin opiate; dangerous because it produces intense euphoria, crosses the blood-brain barrier, tolerance develops rapidly
Endorphins opiate; produces pain relief by stimulating these opiod receptors; produce additional positive effects by indirectly stimulating dopamine pathways
Alcohol also called ethanol; depressant; most commonly abused; has many effects on behavior by turning off cortical inhibition, reducing socail constraints and anxiety; inhibits glutamate(excitatory) and it is part of the GABA receptor complex(inhibitory)
Barbituates depressant; previously drug of choice for anxiety; not addictive, but tolerance can develop; can open chloride channels withough GABA
Benzodiazepines safer drug for treating anxiety; effects due to decreased activity in the limbin system, hippocampus, brainstem, and cortex
Cocaine stimulant; blocks dopamine and serotnin reuptake; dopamine removes inhibition on lower structures; users have deficits in executive functions that involve the prefrontal cortex; difficult to treat b/c comorbid conditions
Amphetamines stimulant; group of synthetic drugs that produce euphoria and increase confidence and concentrations; increase the release of norepinephrine and dopamine; heavy use can mimic schizophrenia
Nicotine stimulant; stimulates incotinic acetylcholine recptors, which in periphery activates muscles and may cause twitching, and centrally produces increased alertness and faster response
Caffeine stimulant; blocks receptors for the neuromodulator adenosine, increasing the release of dopamine and acetylcholine; because adenosine has sedative effects, blocking its receptors increases arousal
Ecstasy (MDMA) psychedelic; psychomotor stimulant at low doses by releasing dopamine; hallucinatory at higher doses through release of serotonin; damages serotonin functioning
Marijuana THC binds to endogenous cannabinoid receptors; cannabinoids regulate presynaptic transmitters; hippocampus, amygdala reductions; impaired prefrontal functioning in offspring
Mesolimbocortical Dopamine System considered the major reward system that causes addiction
Hypofrontality effects of addiction; reduced activity in the fronal regions of the brain causing impulsivity and compulsivity
Agonsitic Treatment drug treatment, which mimics the drug's effects (ex. methadone for opiate addiction)
Antagonsitic Treatment drug treatment that blocks drugs effects (ex. naltrexone used for opiate and alcohol addiction)
Aversive Treatment drug treatment that causes an unpleasant reaction when the addict uses the drug (ex. antabuse, which blocks the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase or ALDH for alcohol addiction)
Anti-drug vaccines stimulate the immune system to make antibodies that degrade the drug; reduced serotnin is found across several addictions
Pharmacological Treatment controversial due to belief that recovery should involve the exercise of will
instinct automatic and unlearned behavior; occurs in all members of species
drive theory the body maintains homeostasis in its systems
incentive theory people are motivated by external stimuli
arousal theory people behave to satisfy a certain level of sensation
temperature regulation preoptic area od the hypothalamus receives temperature signals from the blood and skin
ectotherms can't regulate body temp internally (lizards)
endotherms maintain a constant internal temp (mammal)
osmotic thirst when fluid in cells drop, cells take water from the bloodstream; OLVT of hypothalamus signals median preoptic nucleus to trigger drinking
hypovolemic thirst when blood volume drops: kidneys release renin, increasing angiotensin II and subfornical organ (SFO) then signals median pre optic nucleus
5 categories of taste sweet (carbs), salty (ions), sour (rotten), bitter (toxic), unami (protein)
Taste tongue papillae signals travel to the insula (primary gustatory cortex) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST)
sensory-specific satiety food is less appealing the more you eat, encouraging variation in choices; area NST of the medulla
Learned taste aversions avvoiding foods associated with illness or poor nutrition
learned taste preference preference for the flavor of a food that contains a needed nutrient
mouth saliva starts breakdown of starches into glucose
stomach hydrochloric acid and pepsin mixes with food to digest proteins into amino acids
small intestine duodenum is where the rest of digestion takes place; transforms components of meal into building blocks; hepatic portal vein transports products to liver
lateral hypothalamus initiates eating and controls several aspects of feeding behavior as well as metabolic responses
paraventricula nucleus (PVN) initiates eating, though less effectively, and regulates metabolic processes such as body temp, fat storage, and cellular metabolism
Hunger Signals glucose (glucoprivic hunger), fatty acids (lipoprivic hunger), and Ghrelin (released when stomach nutrients are depleted)
Liver signals nucleus of solitary track (NST) of medulla
arcuate nucleus
Satiety stimulated when stomach stretch receptors stimulated; when food enters duodenum, intestines release cholecystokin(CCK), which inhibits NST and lateral hypothalamus; PPY inhibits arcuate nucleus; Leptin (released by fat cells) inhibits hunger long-term
Basal Metabolic Rate energy required to fuel the brain and body; 75% of energy expenditure at rest
Emotion increase or decrease in physiological activity that is accompanied y a characteristic of the emotion and characteristic behavior or facial expression
Role of Sympathetic Nervous System in Emotion activation is the most obvious component of an emotional response; stimulates adrenals to release hormones, particularly cortisol
Role of Parasympathetic Nervous System in Emotion reduces activity and conserves and restores energy; musclular activation is involved in the external expression of emotion
James-Lange Theory emotions result from physiological arousal that preceds it; different emotions equal different arousal patterns
Cognitive Theory (Schater & Singer) cognitive appraisal determines the emotion; physiological arousal determines the intensity
Integrative Embodiment Theory of Emotions bodily sensations are a critical component, but these perceptions must be integrated with cognitive info
Mirror Neurons respond while observing specifc act; also respond performing the same act; this may be why observing emotions in others activates our own brain's emotional areas
Limbic System many emotion areas; including a network of structures around the upper brainstem
Anterior cingulate cortex part of limbic system; believed to combine emotional, attentional, and bodily info to bring about conscious emotional experience; larger one assoc with harm avoidance
Hypothalamus part of limbic system; primary control over the automatic nervous system, and produces a variety of emotionals expressions
Septal nuclei part of limbic system; stimulation produces a sense of pleasure, accompanied by sexual fantasies and arousal
amygdala part of limbic system; plays a role in fear; damage to it leads to more trusting and less anxiety; anxiety reducing drugs act on it
Insular cortex and Basal ganglia parts of limbic system; associated with disgust
Bechara damage to prefrontal cortex; skin-conductance response decreases correltated to inability to understand consequences of risky behavior
Ventromedial cortex and Orbitofrontal cortex processes emotional info before action is taken, judgments about behvior and its consequences; damage early in life causes never learned moral and social rules; damage later in life causes understand but not able to apply norms
Left Frontal positive emotions and damage causes more anxiety and sadness
Right Frontal negative emotions; greater autonomic responses to external stimuli; damage causes euphoria and trouble recognizing facial expressions and tone
Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis hypothalamus releases CRRH, which stimulates the synthesis and release of ACTH from pituitary gland, which then bonds to adrenal cortex and triggers release of stress hormones, which trigger responses from target organs
Leukocytes white blood cells; recognize invaders by the unique proteins on surface and kills them
Natural Killer Cells attack and destroy certain kinds of cancer cells and cells infected with viruses
Microglia act in most ways like macrophages, but are only found on the CNS
Emotional Pain independent of the somatosensory area, pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal areas; pain is translated into emotion in limbic system
Forms of Aggression in Animals offensive (unprovoked attack on another) and defensive (response to threat)
Forms of Aggression in Humans Instrumental (unprovoked, bring about gain) and impulsive (response to threat real or imagined and heightened emotionality)
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