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characteristics of middle ages art religious symbolic but not realistic
middle ages art usually commissioned by the Church, mostly religious and intended to teach illiterate and had no concern for background, perspective, emotional expressions, or physical realism
3 characteristics of Renaissance art realism secular inspired by the classical world
to reflect realism Renaissance artists studied movement and anatomy to depict human body
place pl and objects realistically in the natural world and used new rules of perspective; to capture a realistic human view
during renaissance, reliogus art was made for churches
secular art was produced for wealthy merchants
merchants would pay for portraits of themselves to hang in their house
Renaissance art was inspired by the classical world
very popular in Renaissance art nudes
used in Renaissance architecture and depicted in paintings to show perspective arches and domes
ancient Greek ideals of symmetry, beauty, and balance reflected their interest in the Classical world
renaissance artists competed for the patronage of wealthy individuals and gov
renaissance artists art reflected recognition and glory/wealth
middle age artists were anonymous often known by their first names
early renaissance art was the first to emerge from the style of the middle ages revealed interests of full-bodied allude to classical world
Brunelleschi DAVID; from david and Goliath
Believed that you could perfect art through mathematics principals Leonardo Da vinci
Engineer and inventor LDV
A true Renaissance man LDV
Less than 17 works completed LDV
considered himself a painter LDV
Made inventions for military and government Total of 20,000 notes, and wrote his notes backwards and Italian LDV
represents LDV artistic philosophy the virtruvian man
Defines the beginning of the high Renaissance the Last Supper
perfect symmetry and faces show emotion the Last Supper
Carried it w/ him until he died Was not sold until his death Mona Lisa
Why was this painting important to Leonardo? one of his few finished works, and believed to be a commissioned portrait of his merchants wife? could be a hidden relationship
Hates to paint considers himself a Sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti
Extremely religious; artwork inspired by Catholic faith combined w theme of classical nude Michelangelo Buonarroti
depict ppl realistically but beautifully; good architect Michelangelo Buonarroti
What was his sculptural philosophy? A figure trapped in every stone and it is his job to free it from its prison.
Makes marble show vein, and vessels Conveys the sadness Mary had when Jesus died La pieta; MB
Ideal perfection; male physical form Free standing sculpture and balanced in the middle of motion David; MB
Takes 4 yrs causes Back problems for the rest of his life Positive then later on becomes dark happens during the Schism Sistine chapel; MB
Jesus sends all the souls to Hell Last Judgment; MB
Combines mathematical perfection with ideal beauty Raphael
ladies man Raphael
most famous painting Madonna; ideal women of society - wealthy - fat - blonde - fair
More secular Spreads out of Italy through Northern Renaissance; Trade and Traveling artists
invention of the printing press Johann Gutenberg
all books before the printing press was handwritten
rebirth or revival renaissance
renaissance began in Italy; mid-1300s
cradle of the Renaissance was the starting point Florence
the growth and changes of the renaissance resulted from the changes in society that took place at the end of the middle ages
renaissance will be a time of major change of increasing complexity in the Western Europe civilization
wealthy city-state and a center of trade Florence
Medici family flaunted their wealth by beautifying the city
as patons of the arts and sciences, Medici family attracted best artists, architects, and writers to Florence
3 characteristics of the Renaissance that differentiate from MA 1. urban society: great location for trade, growth of large city-states 2. rebirth of interest in the classical world; invented by Greeks 3. secular society: not concerned with church, Rome, stress, well-rounded education
results of the Renaissance 1. new attitude towards life, a spirit of curiosity 2. Challenges to religious authority and long held belief 3. Great achievements in science 4. new intellectual movement: humanism 5. Great achievements in literature 6. Great achievements in art
defined as an intellectual movement of the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects such as poetry and philosophy humanism
based upon the study of the classics and is the belief that humans have incredible potential that can be reached through education
Humanism illustrates 1. focuses on individualism 2. Shows a revival of interest in the classics 3. Emphasizes the importance of education to develop a variety of talents
the father of Humanism Petrarch
Italian writer who perfected the sonnet Canzorria
Why is he considered the Father of humanism? bc he writes on secular times and begins a movement in the arts
renaissance literature was heavily influenced by classical world and new philosophy of humanism
men and women interested in "how-to" books
the Book of Courtier wrote how-to books handbook for European aristocrats Baldassare and Castigilone
political philosophy wanted peace in Italy diplomat from Florence wrote "The Prince" for rulers "It is better to be feared than the nature of man is self-interest" "Justify the means: you do not have to be moral as Niccolo Machiavelli
Northern renaissance refers to spread of the Renaissance to regions and countries of north Italy
How did ideas spread? trade, traveling artists to escape turmoil, development of the printing Press
movable type was invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1455 in Germany
the first book JG printed the Gutenberg Bible
Before the printing press books were copied by hand
Northern Renaissance was focused in humanism, stressed education, and classical learning
authors began to write in venacular
wrote Eutopia discussed perfect world could never exist; criticized English government and society Sir Thomas More
used comical tales to offer opinions on religion and education. Francis Rabelais
A playwright and poet, wrote plays in the vernacular that were realistic for the time period. not abt teaching a moral lesson, but were realistic (not symbolic). were inspired by the classical world and his contemporary experiences William Shakespeare
wrote on the role of women in society, championed women's equality and education Christine de Pisan
Northern Renaissance art was influences by the Italian Renaissance but no so much in classical influence
Northern artists were masters of using oil paint
Northern Renaissance art was not so concerned with perspective
because they didn't paint paint great backgrounds they wanted to replicate life thru microscopic detail
religious themes were primarily symbolic, not clearly depicted through images of Bible storues
Northern Renaissance art is much more what than Italian Renaissance? secular
painted Tall Grass and many self-portraits. studied in Italy, but is known to be the best German painter of the Renaissance. small compared to Italian Renaissace Albrecht Durer
painted the Arnolfini Wedding, was a Flemish painter who perfected the newly developed technique of oil painting. naturalistic panel made use of disguised religious symbols Jan Van Eyck
thought to be a form of wedding certificate for Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami Giovanni- Italian merchant Giovanna- daughter of an Italian Merchant
a religious movement in Western Europe that splits the Catholic Church and the Protestant church protestant reformation
NR sparked by the Renaissance because? people no longer accepted the authority of the Church as they had during the MA
begins as a reform movement, but ends up doing what? shattering christian unity in Western Europe
The end of the Reformation is that the Christian Church s split into Catholics and Protestants
The Causes of the Reformation were: a. Renaissance Atmosphere b. Corruption of the church
In what ways were the Church viewed as corrupt? (include indulgences) corruption of the Church worldliness of the Pope selling indulgences
was a German monk who wanted to reform the Church, and he was not the first to develop these ideas. built on the ideas of previous reforms, but he is truly the catalyst FOR THE REFORMATION TO OCCUR Martin Luther
Pope had sent to sell indulgences in Wittenberg, Germany to raise money for the building of a grand cathedral Johann Tetzel
"As soon as the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs." you could by salvation Johann Tetzel
wrote the 95 Theses and posted for all to read on the door of All Saints Church in wittenberg Martin Luther
stated ideas on how to reform the church Copies were printed and distributed across Europe (printing press) Received tremendous public support , and included statements like 95 theses; a. Indulgences had no basis in the Bible b. The Pope didn't have the power to forgive sins; to release souls from purgatory c. Christians could be saved only through faith, and not with money
Pope Leo X ignored Luther. Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor ordered a meeting called the Diet of worms
Martin Luther refused to recant his statements, and was declared an outlaw; sent him into hiding in northern Germany w Prince Fredrick of Saxony
A number of short religious wars resulted throughout Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. ended with a what? Peace of Augsburg
that stated that each principality within Germany could determine their own religion, and did not have to be Catholic. Peace of Augsburg
Northern Germany chose to be Lutherian
South Germany rulers remained Catholic
How are Lutherians and the teachings of the Lutheran Church different from the Catholic church? salvation through faith alone rejects the Pope as the head of the Church - Jesus is the only leader Bible - was the chief guide to all religious truth Believed that ppl could have a relationship w God w/o the church organization Bible in German
In Switzerland the Reformation ideas were spread by Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin
first reformer in Switzerland preached similar ideas to Luther but went even further which Luther did not support Switzerland should be a theocracy; Eucharist was symbolic not real presence Ulrich Zwingli Belief
Diff btwn Lutheran and Ulrich Zwingli the real presence in the Eucharist
most important reformer after Luther Predestination: denies free-will, and strict moral codes Created a church government that used both clergy and laity in the service of the church John Calvin
the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation and therefore guides the lives of “elect” – nothing humans can do either good or bad will change their predestined future predestination
stressed hard work, discipline, thriftiness, honesty and morality – worked hard at spreading their faith to other people Calvinists
In England, the Reformation came differently, the English Reformation was begun by Henry VIII
Why did Henry the VII of the Tudor family introduce Reformation ideas into England? a. political reasons - maintain the power; doesn't have to ask the Pope for permission b. personal - wanted to divorce his wife
created a new church called the Anglican Church
as the head by instituting the act of supremacy in 1534 - allowed him to divorce his wife to get w Anne Boleyn
How was the Church of England different from Catholic Church? dissolved monasteries and convents celebrated mass in english not in Latin; English Bible let the clergy marry
Head of Lutheran church? elected officials
Head of Calvin church? Council of elders
Flirts with another guy and beheads her Anne Boleyn
has a lot of miscarriages gives birth to daughter, wants a divorce Catherine of Aragon
His one true love who died in childbirth Jane Seymour
Falls in love with a portrait; irl is ugly From Germany Divorces her Anne of Cleves
Young Flirts with other men Beheaded Catherine Howard
acts more as nurse than a wife Henry died (syphilis???) Catherine Parr
○ Jane Seymour's son ○ Dies in his teens of tuberculosis ○ Protestant Wanted to give Lady Jane Grey the throne to keep the church Protestant; killed by Bloody Mary Edward VI
○ Mother of Catherine of Aragon Kills protestants; burns at stake 1/2 sister to Edward Reverts England back to Catholicism Very unpopular Mary Tudor
Protestant Became Queen of England in 1558 upon the death of Mary Established England as a protestant country Elizabeth I
The response by the Catholic Church to the schism between Protestantism and Catholicism counter-reformation
What was the goal of the Counter reformation? to strengthen Catholicism throughout the world and to prevent the spread of Protestantism
i. Open schools everywhere; to educate people towards Catholicism Jesuits and St. Ignatius Loyola
argued that the Church could help believers achieve salvation using mystery and ceremonies/rituals to inspire faith convened by Pope III Council of Trent
Result of Council of Trent Restated the traditional Catholic dogma that Protestants had challenged Declared that both faith and good deeds were necessary for salvation
archbishop of milan implemented the reforms of the Council of trent such as building a new school to educate priests Charles Borromeo
worked to regain parts of france from calvinism and founded a religious teaching order for women Francis de Sales
church court that tried people who were “heretics” Brought you in and tortured you until you admitted you were Protestant and then killed Forbade books to stop the spread of Protestantism The Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books
Women became more active in the church - nuns, , network of schools to educate girls, missionary work
became a nun against the orders of her father, Teresa of avila
Result of the Reformation Split in Christian Church and the creation of many different Protestant Sects Persecution
Result of the Reformation pt2 religious wars within and between countries - Catholics and Protestants were intolerant - Catholics persecuted Protestants - Protestants persecuted Catholics - Protestant persecuted other Protestants - Both persecuted Anabaptists, Jews and Muslims
Result of the Reformation pt3 Witch hunts Tens of thousands - mostly women- were accused of being followers of the devil
religious fervor led to witch hunts
Europe will be divided according to religion Catholic: Italy, Spain, Portugal, Southern Germany, Ireland Protestant: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway
Religious wars a. internally btwn France and Germany b. Btwn Catholic and Protestant countries (Spain and England)
Created by: fikott1
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