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Ophthalmic Surgery

What are the three layers of the eye? External: cornea, sclera Middle: iris, ciliary body & choroid Internal: retina
What is the cornea and sclera composed of? fibrous
What are the iris, ciliary body, and choroids composed of? vascular pigment
What is the retina layer composed of? Photoreceptive
What are the eyelids? Musculofibrous folds in front of the orbit
Where do the eyelids meet? canthi (corner)
What are the extrinsic muscles of the eye? 4 rectus - superior, inferior, lateral, medial 2 oblique - superior and inferior
What are the intrinsic muscles of the eye? Iris and ciliary body
What are the 2 cavities of the eyeball? Anterior and posterior chambers
What fluid is found in the anterior chamber? aqueous humor
What fluid is found in the posterior chamber? vitreous humor in the vitreous body and aqueous humor
What is responsible for formation of the fluid? Neuro epithelium
What cranial nerve is the optic nerve? 2nd cranial
What is the dilating drops that dilate the pupil and what do they do? mydriatics and it allows the retina to be viewed.
What are constricting drops and what do they do? Miotics and it contracts the sphincer of the iris making the pupil small which helps to decrease intraocular pressure
What is plastic repair of the entropion? Correction of the muscular fibers of the lid, everting the lid margins and eyelashes.
Why is corrective surgery done for strabismus? Surgery changes the relative strength of the individual muscles and therefore improves coordination.
Is strabismus congenital? No it is not
Name two procedures for strabismus Resection and resession
What gives the eyeball its shape? Aqueous and vitreous humor
What is plastic repair for blepharochalais? It is the removal of redundant skin of the upper lids.
What is a pterygium removed surgically? When it impairs the visual axis.
What is the abbreviation for right eye, left eye and both eye? OD, OS, OU
What may cause rupture of the eyeball? A traumatic injury
What are the three procedures for removal of the eye and when would each be indicated? Enucleation: entire eye is removed Exenteration: entire contents of the orbit are removed Evisceration: all the contents of the orbit are removed
When would enulceation be indicated? Tumors, trauma, infection, blindness, painful glaucoma
When would exenteration be indicated? Tumors, lid tumors that have extended into the orbit
When would evisceration be indicated? Make room for a prostesis
When is Keratoplasty performed? When the patient's cornea is thickened and opacified
Why is Keratoplasty performed? The transparency of the cornea is impaired due to infection
Where are corneas obtained from? Deceased individuals
What is a radial keratotomy designed to do? It is series of precise partial thickness radial incisions in the cornea, these incisions result in a flattening of the cornea, which reduces the refractive error.
What is the bending of light rays through a transparent medium? Refraction
What type of patient is radical keratotomy procedure done for? Individual must at least have a 2D of myopia or the eyes are otherwise healthy
What is a cataract extraction? Removal of the opaque lens from the interior of the eye
What are the three methods that can be used for cataracts? Intracapsular, extracapsular and phacoemulsification
What procedures can be done for glaucma? Iridectomy or Trephination
What may be the cause of retinal detachment? Presence of neoplasms, tears (injury) holes (generation or detachment)
What surgical procedures are performed in the treatment of retinal detachment? Scleral Buckling or Cryotherapy
Where does the nerve enter the eyeball? At the optic disk
Disorder of the lens, opacification and dislocation Cataract
Inflammation of one or more of the glands of the eyeball Chalazion
Thin transparent mucous membrane that lines the back surface of the eyelid and front surface of the globe Conjunctiva
Turning inward of the eye lid Entropion
Intraocular pressure has increased which results in atrophy of the optic nerve and causes blindness Glaucoma
Grafting or corneal tissue from one eye to another Keratoplasty
Edge or corner or border of a part Limbus
Fleshy encroachment onto the cornea Pterygium
Drooping upper eye lid Ptosis
Opening at the center of the iris Pupil
Separation of the retinal layers from the pigmented layer of the retina Retinal detachment
Inability to direct the two eyes at the same objects because of lack of coordination or extraocular muscles Strabismus
The creation of a permanent opening in the tear duct for the drainage of tears Dacryocystorhinostomy
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac, causing pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the medial canthus Dacryocystits
The lacrimal duct is opened and an obstruction is removed Lacrimal Duct Probing
Vascular pigmented _____ layer lies beneath the sclera. Prevents light reflection within the eyeball Choroid
An extension of the choroid located at the periphery of the anterior choroid Smooth muscle to which the suspensory ligaments are attached Ciliary body
Lies directly behind the iris; is a bioconvex, clear structure encompassed by a transparent capsule Lens
Is divided into two chambers by the iris. Lies directly in front of the iris Anterior chamber
Is directly posterior to the iris but anterior to the lens Posterior chamber
Covers the entire globe up to the scleral-corneal junction Conjunctiva
Where does the light come thorough Cornea
Thick, white, fibrous tissue that encloses about three-fourths of the eyeball It is the external layer of the eyeball and communicates with the optic nerve sheath. Sclera
The normal condition of the lens of the eye is transparent and biconvex
Where is the lacrimal gland located? upper lid, outer angle of the orbit
Into which structures do the lacrimal ducts drain tears? nasal cavity
What is the portion of the eye between the cornea and the iris in which aqueous fluid flows and nourishes tissues? anterior chamber
Misalignment or deviation from coordinated movement of the eyes is strabismus
If looking at the right eye of a patient and assigning clock positions of 12, 3, 6, and 9 o’clock to the rectus eye muscles, which of the following would be CORRECT? 12 = superior; 3 = medial; 6 = inferior; 9 = lateral
Which structure of the eye is colored and its muscles constrict or relax to control the amount of light entering the pupil? Iris
How many tunics comprise the structure of the globe of the eye? 3
Which two structures form the outer tunic of the globe of the eye? cornea and sclera
Which structure of the eye is the thin, transparent lining of the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the sclera? conjunctiva
What is the name of the gelatin-like fluid that fills the posterior cavity of the eye? vitreous humor
What is the name of the structure that is a small depression containing only cones and has the highest visual acuity? central fovea
What is the term for the six muscles that provide movement of the eye? extrinsic
What structure is avascular, external, and its function is to refract light rays? cornea
The anterior chamber is the space ____. bound anteriorly by the cornea and posteriorly by the front of the iris
The ____ is an intrinsic muscle of the eye ciliary body
The term used to describe the location behind the globe is ____. retrobulbar
The outermost tunic of the eyeball is called the ____. sclera
The posterior chamber is the space ____ anterior to the lens and posterior to the iris
The innermost tunic of the eye is the ____. retina
A process in which the lens continually changes shape to maintain the focus of an image on the retina Accommodation
In ophthalmic surgery, an temporary traction suture placed through the sclera used to pull the globe laterally for exposure of the posterolateral surface. It resemblance to the reins of a horse's bridle. Brindle Suture
Clouding of vision caused by a disease in which the crystalline lens of the eye, its capsule, or both become opaque. This prevents light from focusing on the retina, resulting in visual distortion. It can develop as a result of disease or injury. Cataract
A technique in which a cold probe is used to freeze tissue, such as the sclera, ciliary body (for glaucoma), or retinal layers, after detachment. Cryotherapy
Low-power cautery used to mark the sclera over an area of retinal detachment Diathermy
Surgical removal of the globe and accessory attachments Enucleation
Surgical removal of the contents of the eyeball, with the sclera left intact Evisceration
The point where light rays converge after passing through a lens Focal point
A group of diseases characterized by elevation of the intraocular pressure. Sustained pressure on the optic nerve and other structures may result in ischemia and blindness Glaucoma
Surgery of the cornea. The term penetrating _______ refers to corneal transplantation Keratoplasty
Surgery in which the eye muscle is re-positioned to release the globe Muscle recession
A process whereby high-frequency sound waves are used to emulsify tissue, such as cataract Phacoemulsification
A triangular membrane that arises from the medial canthus; the tissue may extend over the cornea, causing blindness Pterygium
A phenomenon of physics in which light rays are bent as they pass through a transparent medium that is denser then air. In the eye, ________ occurs as light enters the front of the eye and passes through the cornea, lens, aqueous humor and vitreous. Refraction
A flat-tipped suture needle commonly used in ophthalmic surgery Spatula needle
Inability to coordinate the extraocular muscles, which prevents binocular vision Strabismus
Outer Fibrous Tunic contains Sclera and Cornea
Middle Vascular Tunic contains Iris, Ciliary body and Choroid
Inside Tunic contains Retina
Turning outward of the eyelid and drooping of lower eyelid. Ectropion
The surgical procedure that opens the lacrimal duct from an obstruction Lacrimal Duct Probing
Name the six bones of the orbital cavity starting from clockwise at 12 Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, lacrimal, and ethmoid
The anterior-posterior distance of the globe is to short, images are to close are blurred, Farsightedness Hyperopia
The anterior-posterior distance is too long, the focal point lies in front of the retina, resulting in blurred vision of distant objects, nearsightedness Myopia
Removal of the vitreous from the anterior chamber Anterior Vitrectomy
The sensory layer of the retina becomes separated from the pigment epithelial layer Scleral Buckling
Creating a channel from the aqueous humor may drain from the anterior chamber for treatment of glaucoma Trabeculectomy
The laser is used to shrink collagen and stretch the canal of Shlemm and expanding canal, increasing drainage, and reducing IOP Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty
One or more bony sections of the orbital cavity are removed to reduce pressure on the optic nerve. Orbital Decompression
Complete removal of the eyeball (globe). Enucleation
Contents of the eye are removed, but the outer shell of the sclera and the muscle attachments are left intact Evisceration
Removal of the entire eye and orbital contents, includes eyelids, ocular muscles, and orbital fat Orbital Exenteration
Strabismus is defined as ____. deviation of the position of the eye
A small lump on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid caused by an inflammatory reaction of material trapped inside an oil-secreting gland is called a(n) ____. chalazion
What condition is characterized by excess pressure of the aqueous humor? glaucoma
What procedure is performed to open blocked tear ducts? lacrimal duct dilation
Phacoemulsification is one method of ____. removing an opaque lens
Recession or resection is the surgical treatment for ____. strabismus
What instrument is used to remove the recipient cornea during keratoplasty? trephine
Cryotherapy involves the use of ____. Cold
Why is dacryocystorhinostomy performed? to establish a new pathway for tear drainage
During extracapsular cataract extraction, the ____ capsule remains. posterior
What is the purpose of placing a traction suture prior to cataract extraction? to stabilize the globe
Vitrectomy requires the use of what piece of specialized equipment? ocutome
Mydriatics and cycloplegic drugs cause ____. pupil dilation
Diuretics are used to ____. reduce intraocular pressure
Decadron is a common ____. steroid
The most common suture needle used for corneal suturing is ____. spatula micropoint
The ____ scissors are useful in strabismus and conjunctiva operations. Westcott
Entropion is a condition that affects the ____. lower eyelid
Intraocular pressure is measured with a ____ prior to any incision. tonometer
____ sponges are the sponges of choice in Ophthalmic surgery. Weck
Created by: etsmom



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