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Photography

QuestionAnswer
Different elements in the history/process of a photograph (8) Photographer, selection, technique, chemical/digital processing, edition, multiplicity, medium, and public & influence.
Elements that can modify the quality of the image (5) Subject's feelings, lenses, shooting angle, background & set and lighting
Characteristics of an iconic image (4) Creative, authentic, innovative, and recognizable
Basic elements of a great picture (6) Composition, design, perspectives, color, volume, shape
Rule of Thirds (definition) A composition in which an image is divided in 9 squares, drawing two lines vertically and two lines horizontally, as the human eye is naturally drawn to a point about two-thirds up to a page.
Golden Section (definition) Origin of the rule of thirds; a proportion that can be found everywhere (perfect inward spiral that is divided in 9 squares)
Horizontal lines in a composition represent... ...peace and relaxation
Vertical lines in a composition represent... ...order and a sensation of stability
Curvy lines in composition are... ...dynamic and create movement
Order of inventions before the invention of lasting photography? Camera lucida - phsyionotrace - camera obscura
Camera Lucida (definition) Machine in beginning of 19th century that helped artists draw shapes and outlines before painting.
Physionotrace (definition) Enabled artist to draw a portrait of the sitter for a reasonable price. Drawing produced small copper plates (master negative) that could be printed again and again. (1784, Gilles-Louis Chrétien)
Camera Obscura (definition) Phenomenon when light enters through a hole in a wall facing another wall or plane, the image will be projected in natural colors, but upside down.
Thomas Wedgwood (definition) First person who has used light-sensitive chemicals to capture silhouette images on paper. First known to have attempted to photograph the image formed in a camera obscura.
Timeline of the invention of Photography/? Heliography (Niépce) - Daguerreotype (Daguerre) - Calotype/Talbotype (Fox Talbot) - Collodion Process (Archer) - Ambrotype (Ambrose)
Characteristics of Heliography (4 + date) 1813: Long exposure time, unique image without negative, horizontally inverted.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (definition) Niépce has created the first permanent photograph ever.
Characteristics of Daguerreotypes (4 + date) 1839: Still a long exposure time, produced just one image that was extremely fragile, very sharp in detail, images were difficult to view from a certain angle.
Most important difference between Heliography and Daguerreotype? New process, which allowed daguerreotypes to be extremely sharp in detail.
William Henry Fox Talbot (definition) Inventor of the negative image, which made replication of photos possible.
Characteristics of Calotype / Talbotype (4 + date) 1835: Creates a negative (replication made possible), retouching could be done on either negative or print, far less delicate than daguerreotype, warmer tones than daguerreotype
Characteristics of Collodion Process (4 + date) 1851: colorless and grainless, shorter exposure time, difficult processing (wet, sensitivity would drop once collodion had dried), strong collodion stank.
Frederick Scott Archer (definition) Discovered collodion as an alternative to albumen and other glass processes and invented the wet plate collodion process.
Roger Fenton (definition) First war photographer during the Crimean War, thanks to the collodion process. He had taken a whole travel trailer in order to develop the photographs.
Richard Leach Maddox (definition) Invented lightweight gelatin dry plates (with silver salts in bromide-gelatin emulsion), allowing a dry plate collodion process.
Characteristics of Dry Plate Collodion Process (4 + date) 1871: greater light sensitivity & shorter exposures, darkrooms no longer necessary, new range of cameras began to appear, first widely used photographic process that produced a negative image on a transparent photographic medium
Color difference between Calotype/Talbotype & Collodion Process? Calotype/Talbotype: brown, yellow colors. Collodion Process: silvery, greyish tones.
James Ambrose Cutting (definition) Invented the ambrotype (collodion positives). Underexposed negatives that can be viewed as positives.
Characteristics of Ambrotype (3 + date) 1854: less exposure required, cheaper and quicker production, could be viewed from any angle
John William Frederick Herschel (definition) First one to use the word 'photography', one of the main proto-photographers. He invented concepts 'negative' and 'positive'. When photography was fast enough and exposure time was short, he invented the term 'snap shot' (+/- 1860)
Main positions about potential of 'camera art' (3) 1. Photographs are not art as they are made with a mechanical device & physical and chemical phenomena. 2. Photographs are useful to art but should not be considered equal in creativeness. 3. Photography is a useful replication technique.
Types of uses of photography (7) 1. Fine Art; 2. Scientific; 3. Travel; 4. Documentary; 5. Advertising; 6. Fashion Photography; 7. Sports Photography
Characteristics of Fine Art Photography (6) Express feelings and emotions, artistic freedom, create profound impression, radically different approach to reality, in contrast to representational photography, mise en scène (=everything is intentional).
Types /examples of Scientific Photography (5) Aerial photography, high-speed photography, microscopic photography, X-ray photography, stroboscobic flash.
Characteristics of Travel Photography (4) One of the most popular uses of photography, one of the first to appear, goal is to capture nature and reality, allowed people to know other places and cultures.
Characteristics of Scientific Photography (3) Verification tool with neutral aesthetic, lack of emotional values, used in specialized fields.
Characteristics of Documentary Photography (6) Immediate, reality, truthful, interested in the time we live in, typically covered in professional photojournalism, a way of social documentation (also denounce injustice and other social issues).
FSA (definition) Farm Security Administration, 1935. Photographers that register rural working conditions.
FSA Photographers (8) Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Gordon Park (political), Ben Shahn, Arthur Rothstein, Jack Delano, John Vachon, Russel Lee
Characteristics of Advertising Photography (5) Great formal quality, persuasive communication, needs to commercialize a product, intentional photography, huge budgets.
Characteristics of Fashion Photography (5) Presents new designs through specialized press, attractive images aimed to conquer the viewer, high quality standards, trend settings, defines an era and its way of living, has a short "life" and therefore needs to be powerful, impacting & perfect.
Fashion Photographers (6) Barón Adolf Gayne de Meyer, Man Ray, H.P. Horst, Richard Avedon, Patrick de Marchelier, Herb Ritts.
Characteristics of Sports Photography (5) Immediate, great news coverage, action needs action, equipment is everything, fast transmission.
Types of image sensors (2) CCD (charge-coupled device) or CCMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor)
Types of lenses (2) FF (Full frame, more professional, less grain, better reaction to light) or APS C (smaller sensors with crop factor, lightweight, more lenses available for those cameras)
Types of cameras (4) Compact cameras, bridge cameras, DSLR cameras, EVIL cameras
Types of photographic files (3) JPEG/JPG, RAW and TIFF
Challenges of photography in the 21st century (3) The use (social media), evolution and education.
The Avant-Garde Movement (definition) The first half of the 19th century, concept used to refer to people/works that are experimental, radical, unorthodox with respect to art. Non-traditional, aesthetic innovation, initial unacceptability
Name the Avant Garde Movements (4) Modernism, dadaism, futurism, surrealism
Characteristics of Modernism (5) Responded to rapid changes in technology, culture & society at the beginning of the 20th century, ready availability of 35mm camera, The Leica I (1925), photographers used medium to engage with experience of modernity, emphasis on underlying geometry
Characteristics of Dadaism (5) Anarchist and anti-bourgeois movement, beauty in everyday objects, attempts to re-invent art (what is art? who decides?), made use of photomontage, photogram and solarisation
Photomontage (definition) Combination of different negatives to produce final image
Photogram, or Rayograph (definition) Positive image that looked like a negative, which was taken without a camera by placing objects directly onto surface of photosensitive material and exposing it to light.
John Heartfield (definition) Pioneer to use art as a political weapon; made anti-Hitler and anti-nazi photomontages
Henri Cartier-Bresson (definition) Pioneer in the genre candid photography / street photography, which was very unusual during the beginning of the 20th century. One of the co-founders of Magnum Photos in 1947.
Man Ray (definition) Significant contributor to Dadaism and Surrealism, renowned fashion and portrait photographer, one of the explorers of photograms (which he called Rayographs).
Tristan Tzara (definition) One of the founders and central figures of Dadaism.
Characteristics of Futurism (5) Celebrated advanced technology and urban modernity, wished to destroy older forms of culture, adapt motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge. Not really a cohesive group or movement - but they were all italian.
Wanda Wulz (definition) Joined Futurist movement after taking portrait of Marinett (one of the manifesto writers) in 1931. Took a self potrtrait and mixed it with a cat.
Characteristics of Surrealism (4) Create new values for society after WWI, photography was the only means to capture automatism and dream, no clear rules for expression, no longer debate about photography being art or not.
Robert Capa (definition) Arguably the greatest combat photographer in history, one of the founders of Magnum Photos in 1947.
The Founders of Magnum Photos (7) Robert Capa, David Seymour, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger, William Vandivert, Rita Vandivert and Maria Eisner
Magnum Photos (definition) Photo agency created after dream of Robert Capa. He wanted to create agency where the photos of photographers would be respected. Magnum is one of the first photographic cooperatives, owned and administered by members.
David "Chim" Seymour (definition) Known for his photographs during the Spanish Civil War, one of the co-founders of Magnum Photos in 1947.
Created by: mvanloon