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Med Surg Chapter 6

Fluid balance is controlled by kidneys
If the fluid pressure is high such as in CHF or fluid overload less ADH is released
If fluid pressure is down more ADH is released
Active transport Fuel is needed ATP (adenosine triphosphate), Example: sodium and potassium pump.They need ATP to move
Passive transport No energy is required. Diffusion, Filtration, Osmosis
Diffusion movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Filtration the movement of small molecules and water through an area that is semipermeable
Osmosis movement of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
Three types of tonicity isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic
Tonicity is based on: blood
isotonic same osmolality as blood
hypertonic higher or greater osmolality
hypotonic lower osmolality
another word for dehydration hypovolemia
sensible loss examples urinating
insensible loss examples sweating and breathing
Adults lose how much fluid in 24 hours? 2,500 ml
People at risk for dehydration children, older adults, infants
Adults need how much fluid a day? 30 ml/kg
Signs of dehydration • Thirst • Rapid, weak pulse • Low BP • Dry Skin and mucous membranes • Skin tenting • Decreased urine output (less than 30 ml/hr) • Increased temperature
During dehydration how is the creatinine and BUN? Elevated
Signs of Fluid Excess • Bounding pulse • Elevated BP • Respiratory changes (crackles, labored breathing, shallow) • Edema • Increased urine output • Weight gain • Heart failure (posterior lower lobes first)
Created by: shosh316