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Art Test #3

The Caves at Lascaux 15,000 B. C., caves in France with many paintings of animals, closed to the public in 1963
Venus of Willendorf 25,000 B. C., female fertility sculpture found in Austria, made of limestone
Bison 10,000 B. C., sculpture carved from a reindeer antler
Stonehenge 2000 B. C., ritual site in Salisbury Plain, England, constructed to indicate the solstices and equinoxes of the year, times for planting, harvest and religious ceremonies, made of cromlech and lintels
Cromlech A round grouping of gigantic stones
Lintels Horizontal elements
Ziggurat at Ur 2100-2000 B. C. in Iraq, bridge the gap between the human and divine
Ziggurat A temple and center of spiritual life
Standard of Ur 2685-2645 B. C., mosaic-like panel of shell and colored stones, depicts the results of a Sumerian military battle
Stele of Hammurabi 1760 B. C., composed a humane code of laws, code of Hammurabi was inscribed on a black basalt stele or upright slab
Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes 500 B. C., Persepolis, Iran, Persians built this palace under the rule of King Darius
The Great Pyramids Largest of the three was built for Cheops, stones cut so accurately that a knife blade can be forced between two surfaces, guarded by the Great Sphinx
Imhotep 2,600 B. C., first artist in history whose name is known, architect for the Step Pyramid of King Zoser
Palace at Knossos 1,600-1,400 B. C., Crete, Palace of Minos, contains many rooms, running water, sewage system, theater, storerooms, terraces and decorated quarters for the rulers
Bull Dance Fresco Fresco from Minoan Palace of Knossos, largest Minoan wall painting discovered so far, shows a ritual game
Fresco Plaster wall painting
Lion Gate at Mycenae 1,250 B. C., limestone relief sculpture and doorway that represents the power of the Mycenean King
Funeral Mask 1,500 B. C., beaten gold which was probably intended to cover the face of a deceased ruler or King Agamemnon
The Kritios Boy The first important point is that he really stands, back leg is not bound to a block for balance, shows a relaxed body, for only when the Greek sculptor had mastered the relaxed body could he begin to show the body in motion
Contrapposto Counterpose, used to describe the position where the engaged leg is in the forward position
Statue of a Younth, Kouros 600 B. C., life-size nude youth that represented Apollo/ideal athlete, stylized and didn't represent real people
Kore Female figure like the Kouros, freestanding clothed figure of an idealized young girl, painted, Greek sculptures appeared more natural
Archaic Smile The slight smile seen on Kouros and Kore
Frieze Continuous, sculpted band - usually running along the top of a wall
Pediment Flat, triangular area on buildings
Nike of Samothrace 190 B. C., marble, one of the greatest of Hellenistic sculptures, symbol of Winged Victory
Capitol Top of the columns
Parthenon Central building of the acropolis in Athens, Greece, built by Iktinus and Kallikrates in 448-432 B. C., built for Athena
Porch of the Maidens, the Erechtheum 421-405 B. C., six female figures (caryatids) are used instead of columns to support the architecture
The Theater at Epidaurus 350 B. C., an open air, rounded structure that was placed into the sloping sides of a hill, used for dramatic productions even today
Encaustic A painting technique involving mixing the pigment and applying it to the surface when hot, used to paint the Greek statues
Amphora A large storage jar with two handles
Hydria A large jug for carrying water from the community fountain
Colosseum 72-80 A. D., Grandest of all Roman structures, amphitheater/stadium originally designed for the staging of lavish spectacles (battles between animals and gladiators)
Pantheon 118-125 A. D., Rome, built to honor all the gods, huge dome, eye in the middle
Mosaics Colored stone, tile, or glass (tesserae) used to create designs
Mosaics of San Vitale, in Ravenna, Italy Made of brightly colored glass (tesserae) pressed into wet plaster, depicts Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora with attendants, Christianity is appearing in art
St. Mark's church in Venice 1063 A. D., largest and most lavishly decorated church of its time
Cathedral of St. Basil, Moscow It has a large number of onion-shaped domes surrounding a central tent-like structure
Medieval Art Middle Ages, period of time over 1,000 years (500-1500 A. D.)
Manuscript Illumination Monks in secluded monasteries spent their lifetimes illustrating pages of scripture with fantastic animals, intricate designs and infinite detail
Lindisfarne Gospel Illustrated between 698-721 in Christianized Great Britain, it is a volume of many vellum pages
Vellum Parchment or bleached animal skin
Bayeux Tapestry 220 ft, long, embroidery, Normans defeating English in 1066
Romanesque Architecture Rounded arches
Created by: archergirl