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Dice Sci DT

TermDefinition
Free radicals -Associated with human disease -Atoms looking to be paired, causes damage due to chain reaction -Antioxidants can safely interact with
Systolic/ Diastolic -First number: systolic blood pressure when heart beats -Second number: diastolic blood pressure between beats
Accretion Disk -Forms around black hole and is made of material sucked towards event horizon
Neutron Star -Formed when large star collapses (not large enough to be black hole) -Densest star
Chandrasekhar Limit -Quantity equal to 1.4 solar masses -Maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star -If the white dwarf has a greater mass, it collapses further into a neutron star or black hole. Both involve a supernova
Eutectic point -Eutectic mixture has lowest melting point of any mixture of same atoms -Eutectic temperature is temperature at which mixture freezes or melts
Hydrogen -Also known as Protium -Discovered by Henry Cavendish -75% of baryonic mass, most abundant substance
Ozone -O3 -Pale blue gas -High concentration in atmosphere
pH -Above 7, acid, below, base -Molecules can change color based on ph - -log10(moles/L) of Hydrogen Ion
Ether -Class of organic compound -Oxygen atom linking 2 hydrocarbon groups -Epoxide is cyclic ether
Millikan-Oil-Drop Experiment -Measures charge of electron -Found mass and charge of an oil drop -Charge was multiple of constant, charge of electron
Aufbau Principle -As protons are added to change the element, electrons are added as well to the lowest energy orbital
Lewis Acid/Base -Compound or ionic species that accepts(acid) electron pair or donates(base) electron pair -Lewis base, such as OH- wants to give away pair of electrons -Lewis acid, such as H+ wants to accept pair of electrons -Can form Lewis adduct together
Pauli Exclusion Principle -Two or more identical fermions cannot occupy same quantum state -This is often used for electrons in orbital -Electrons in same orbital must have different spin
Bronze -Alloy of tin and copper -Contains metals and nonmetals -Used in bronze age
Ampere’s Law -Magnetic field is proportional to current -Use right hand rule -Last of Maxwell’s Equations
Impedance -Same thing as resistance but for AC circuits -Measure of opposition that a circuit present sto current when voltage is applied -Measured in Ohms
Baud -Unit of electricity signaling speed, equal to pulse per second -bit/second -Transmission speed
Bose-Einstein Condensate -State of matter when gas of bosons is cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero -Predicted by Bose and Einstein
Hertz -Discovered electromagnetic waves -Frequency is based on his name
Black Bodies -Emit thermal radiation based on Planck’s law -Perfect black bodies absorb all light and therefore appear black -Don’t exist
Dark Matter -Baryonic Matter is normal -Existence explains a lot of problems -Doesn’t interact/ emit radiation
Coulomb’s Law -Electrostatic force between 2 ions in ionic bond -Force between 2 charged particles is directly proportional to product of charges and inversely proportional to distance squared
Superfluidity -Lambda -Flowing without friction or viscosity -Property of Helium 3 and 4 when very cold -Threshold found on graph of specific heat versus temperature
Stern - Gerlach Experiment -Proved that atoms have angular momentum(spin) -Atoms were fired through magnetic field
Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment -Proved that positive nucleus where mass is concentrated exists -Particles scattered when hit against thin metal foil
Hypnosis -Loose power of voluntary action -Coined by James Braid -Produces Hypermnesia, enhancement of memory -Responsive to direction
Little Albert -Made child afraid of furry objects -John B. Watson received empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans by experimenting on this 11- month infant
Leptons -6 flavors -Consists of neutrinos, muons, and electrons -Elementary particle with half integer spin, fermion, that does not undergo strong interaction -Fairly massive
Bosons -Integral spin -All particles are fermions/bosons -Pauli Exclusion Principle doesn’t apply -Physicist Bose -Follows Bose-Einstein Statistics
Baryons -Part of Hadron Family -3 quarks -Proton and neutron -Name from word “heavy”
Mesons -Very unstable -Quark and antiquark -Subatomic particle, intermediate in mass between electron and proton and transmits force to bond nucleus
Gluons -Carry strong nuclear force -Bind Hadrons together -No charge, mass, color -Glues quarks
Gauge Bosons -Force Carrier -Spin of 1 -Photons, Gluons
Hadron -Mesons and baryons -Made of quarks held together by strong force -Can be boson and fermion -Held together by strong force -Colorless
Higgs Boson -Spin of 0 -Is not a Gauge Boson but is a boson -Gives particles weight -Main reason for construction of Cern -Explains why particles that should be massless are not
Weak Interaction -Interaction between subatomic particles that causes radioactive decay and plays an important role in nuclear fission -One of four fundamental interactions or forces
Strong Interaction -Responsible for strong nuclear force -Much stronger than other forces at close range -Holds ordinary matter together as it holds quarks into hadrons -For example, it makes the protons and neutrons not fall apart and bonds them together
Fermions -Include all quarks and leptons, and composite particles -Obey Pauli-Exclusion Principle -Follow Fermi-Dirac Statistics -Half-Integer spin
Quarks -Combine to form hadrons -Always found together due to color confinement -Have charge, mass, color charge, and spin -6 flavors (remember charm and strange)
Partons -Replaced quarks before they were widely accepted
Cosmological Constant -Lambda -Energy density of vacuum of space -Einstein tried to have static universe, not true, and made this constant up.
Photoelectric Effect -Electromagnetic radiation is based on photons -When light hits electron on metal, electron is emitted -Light is particle -Einstein’s Quantum Theory of Light explains this
Thomas Young’s Double-Slit Experiment -Light can be wave or particle -Observed interference when light was wave -When light acted as a photon, no interference -Quantum eraser is modern version of experiment
Planck’s constant -Photon’s energy is constant -Symbol is h -Named after formulator of Quantum Theory
Uncertainty Principle -Can only know position or speed exactly -Only for very small masses
Michelson - Morley Experiment -Disproved luminiferous aether, an aether that light traveled through -Light can travel through void like space -Used interferometer -Tried to prove aether but failed
Project Gemini -Second human spaceflight program -First Spacewalk
Carl Sagan -Science popularizer, astronomer -Co-wrote award winning TV show, Cosmos: A Personal Voyage -Wrote many popular books
Rutherford -Showed that positive charge was in nucleus -Main person in namesake gold-foil experiment
Dalton -Developed the Law of Partial Pressures, known as namesake’s Law -Color blind-research -Proposed modern atomic theory
Linus Pauling -Only person to win 2 individual Nobel Prizes -Studied proteins -Worked on DNA Structure -Founded quantum chemistry and molecular biology
Jean-Baptiste Fourier -French Mathematician -Analyze signals in time -Namesake of a transform, an example of frequency domains, a field he dealt with
Archimedes -Greek Mathematician -Predicted modern Calculus, formed are of sphere, circle, and under parabola
Libby -Professor at University of Chicago who developed radiocarbon dating
John Bardeen -Won Nobel Prize for research with semiconductors and superconductivity -Invented transistor
Millikan -Main person in namesake-Oil-Drop Experiment, which measured the charge and mass of an electron
Specification -Not longer able to interbreed -New species is formed -New branch on phylogenetic tree
Miller-Urey Experiment -Life can be formed from inorganic chemicals -Miller and Urey formed amino acids from inorganic chemicals
Mendel’s Pea Plant Experiment -Showed genetics, alleles, and independent assortment through hybridization of pea plants
Meselson - Stahl Experiment -Showed that DNA replication is semiconservative, meaning that one strand is original and the other is produced -Used E.Coli
Hershey - Chase Experiment -Trait was not inherited to E.coli when DNA had sulfur, therefore DNA is responsible for the inheritance of traits
Hemosiderin -Stores iron inside the cell -In some phagocytic cells -Denatured form of ferritin
Parathyroid -Gland in the neck -Controls calcium levels
Created by: Omri52