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Software Application

information system software to organize, analyze, and present data
data raw facts
information data that has been organized or analyzed
spreadsheet an application that enables data analysis based on formulas that define relationships among the data
dynamic spreadsheet changes to the data are reflected in the calculations immediately
circular reference a formula in one cell references another cell that contains a formula based on the value of the first cell
database a structured set of data
Database Management System (DBMS) includes Physical Database, Database Schema, and Database Engine
Physical Database files that contain the data
Database Schema structure of the data
Database Engine program allowing user to enter, search, filter and retrieve the data
Structured Query Language (SQL) database programming language for managing databases
Relational Model database is organized in tables, records, and fields/attributes
digital libraries collections of digital objects that can include text, visual, audio, and video files
digital archive primary sources of information rather than secondary sources found in a library
metadata data to provide information about other data
metadata registry/repository the database in which the metadata is stored
search engines get their information from crawling from site to site; not necessarily the same thing as a web browser; use metadata
spider database that does the searching
e-Commerce applications that allow the purchase and sale of goods and services via the World Wide Web
data mining looking for patterns in static data collections called data warehouses; seeks to identify previously unknown patterns
Class Description type of data mining; characterizes similar groups of data
Class Discrimination type of data mining; identifies properties that divide groups of data
Cluster Analysis type of data mining; looks for new ways to group data
Association Analysis type of data mining; looks for links between groups
Outlier Analysis type of data mining; looks for data pieces that don't comply with the group norm
open access online research materials that are free of tolls and copyright restrictions
Creative Commons used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build work they created
US Privacy Act of 1974 required government agencies to publish notice of their databases in the Federal Register to allow citizens to access and correct information
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) regulates the use and disclosure of protected health information by health insurers and medical service providers
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act governs access of educational information and records; gives parents access to student's education records until they are 18; gives students 18+ enrolled in any post-secondary institution right of privacy
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978) established FISA Court
FISA Court oversees surveillance warrants against foreign spies within the US
artificial intelligence the study/implementation of computer systems that model and apply the intelligence of the human mind
The Turing Test test to determine whether or not a computer is intelligent
Knowledge Representation element of artificial intelligence; uses different techniques to represent knowledge
semantic networks a type of knowledge representation like a mind map using nodes and arrows
search tree a structure that represents all of the possible consequences of a decision
Expert Systems element of artificial intelligence; computer systems that embody the knowledge of human experts in a specific field
Neural Networks element of artificial intelligence; computer systems that mimic the processing of the human brain
Natural Language Processing element of artificial intelligence; computer systems that process human language through voice recognition, comprehension and synthesis
phonemes unit in which sound is broken in Natural Language Processing
Robotics element of artificial intelligence; autonomous, mobile robots that require Artificial Intelligence to interact with their surroundings
model creating a representation of a complex system and altering that model to observe the results
virtual reality computer technologies that generate realistic images, sounds, and other sensations that replicate an environment (real or imaginary) and enables the user to interact with this space and any objects in it
augmented reality superimposes a computer generated environment on the user's view of the real world
2-D Graphics Software converts 2-D shapes into pixel data to produce an image that can be manipulated or animated
Image Processing Software analyzes pixels in an image to identify patterns or even understand images
3-D Graphics Software software to convert 3-D shapes into 2-D images that can be viewed on a flat screen
polygonal mesh a set of polygons that cover the surface of the 3-D object that you are trying to model
particle system particles are assigned behavioral formulas to make them move to form a shape in 3-D modeling
rendering the scene determining how the objects in a scene graph would appear when projected onto a 2-D projection plane
clipping the process of slicing off the objects that are not in the view volume
scan conversion/rasterization process of assigning patches on remaining scene graph to pixels on 2-D image by passing straight lines from camera to objects
hidden surface removal process of discarding points on the scene that are blocked by other parties
animation displaying a sequence of 2-D images (frames) in rapid succession
storyboard sequence of 2-D images that tell the story
Operating System main component of the System Software
Utility Software programs that extend or customize the OS
User Interface how the user opens and stores programs and documents
Graphical User Interface (GUI) used in modern OS; icons and windows; can have multiple programs up at once
Kernel coordinates all of the computer's activities
Process Management scheduling the use of the CPU; in the kernel
memory management allocates space within RAM for programs and data; OS must move parts of programs in and out of RAM as needed; in kernel
paging moving parts of programs in and out of RAM as needed
File Management coordinates the use of mass storage, the location of files, accessibility to files, storing new files; in kernel
File Organization allows users to organize files in folders or directories, each file has a directory path; in kernel
Device Driver Communication communicates with peripheral devices; in kernel
bootloader stored in ROM and executed when computer is started; tells computer to transfer OS to RAM and run it