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section 7.3

Structures and Organelles

What are 4 things all cells have in common DNA ( genetic material), Cytoplasm or cytosol, cell membrane or plasma membrane, and ribosomes
All cells have DNA but they don't all have a/an Nucleus
What cell structure used for locomation or movement is short and numerous and moves like the oars in a rowboat cilia
what cell structure used for locomation or movement is few in number , long in length, and has a whiplike motion flagella
Name 3 structures made of microtubules 1. cilia and flagella 2. centrioles 3. cytoskeleton
What part of the cell regulates what enters and leaves the cell to help maintain homeostasis... It is called selectively permeable cell membrane or plasma membrane
Which organisms DO NOT HAVE a cell wall? animals
Which organisms have cells walls? plants, fungi, some protists, and prokaryotes ( bacteria)... they are made of different materials
What makes up the cell walls of plants and where is the cell wall of a plant located cellulose, and the cell wall is the outer is right outside the cell membrane ( don't forget that plant cells have both cell walls and cell membranes)
What is the function of a cell wall? it is a protective and supportive structure
Describe cytoplasm it is a region between the cell membrane and nucleus in a eukaryote... in a prokaryote it is the region within a cell membrane.. It is the fluid or solution of the cell and the organelles suspended within... it can also be called cytosol
What is a description for cytosol it can be a word for cytoplasm... it is a newer term for the fluid in a cell... the solution..mostly water, and proteins but also includes salts (ions) minerals and organic molecules it is a mixture so the content is not set
where does metabolism occur in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes? in prokaryotes metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm... in eukaryotes the metabolism occurs in the specific organelles or the organelles working together
what term describes the structures in cells that resemble little organs ; normally are membrane bound and have specific functions that help with division of labor organelles
using the city metaphor for organelles in a cell What are the mayor, the protein factories, and the highway mayor is nucleus, protein factories are ribosomes, the highway is the endoplasmic reticulum
using the city metaphor for organelles in a cell... What is the post office, the trash collectors, the storage areas, and the power plants ... the post office is the golgi, the trash collectors and the lysosomes, the storage areas are they vacuoles and the power plants are the mitochondia
What is the ribosome made of? Where are the ribosomes made? How are they different from other organelles? What typeof cells have them? 1. RNA and protein 2. made in nucleolus 3. don't have membranes 4. In all cells (prokaryote and eukaryote)
What is the function of ribosomes they are the sites of protein synthesis
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum... and what is the structure that makes them different rough and smooth... rough has ribosomes and smooth does not have ribosomes
what is the function of rough endoplasmic reticulum the ribosomes make proteins and the proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum for transport through the cell
what is the job of smooth endoplasmic reticulum the smooth e.r. doesn't do as much transport but two jobs that are important are 1. make lipids ( hormones and other secretory products) 2. breaks down toxins in liver cells
Explain how the golgi is like a post office or a warehouse the golgi receives proteins and lipids from the ER.. AND PROCESSES AND PACKAGES THEM to move throughout the cell or out of the cell. THE PACKAGES ARE CALLED VESICLES
What organelle is made in the golgi? the lysosomes ( bags of digestive enzymes)
what words should be associated with a golgi that start with v and s vesicles ( the little packages visible at the edges of the golgi and they transport the processed materialsO... and secretions ( the materials in the bags generally go to the edge of the cell an exit as secretions...
What are two nicknames for lysosomes clean up crew and suicide sac
How to lysosomes act as a clean up crew they are filled with enzymes and can digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, wastes, bacteria or viruses
How can lysosomes be a suicide sac they contain digestive enzymes and if they break they can kill the cell
What do lysosomes fuse with to do intracellular digestion they fuse with vacuoles and dump their enzymes into the vacuole to complete the digestion of the contents
What is the function of vacuoles they are membrane bound bags that act as a storage area for various materials ( temporary storage)
Which organisms have a very large vacuole in their cell plants have a large central vacuole... it can fill with water and help support the plant..maintain the shape
Which organelle has powerhouse for a nickname mitochondria
The mitochondria DOES NOT MAKE ENERGY... what does it do that is associated with energy it converts sugar into atp.. ( atp is the energy molecule that the cells can use ( it does cellular respiration... aerobic cellular respiration)
What should you look for in a mitochondria a sausage shaped structure with inner membranes ... the inner membranes increase the surface area for the processes of cellular respiration
What is a plastid and give an example a plastid is an organelle in plants that stores starches, lipids, and pigments ( pigments are the molecules of various color).. one pigment is chlorophyll.. the chloroplast is an example of a plastid that contains chlorophyll a pigment)
Who has chloroplasts? do all cells of those organisms have chloroplasts? plants and algae... not all cells of plants have chloroplasts only those doing photosynthesis
What is photosynthesis the chlorophyll traps light and the light energy is used to transform carbon dioxide and water into sugar ( glucose) storing the suns energy for later use... oxygen is produced as a side product
What is the name of the little disk structures inside the chloroplast. a stack of these little disks is called ? the little disks are called thylakoids and the stack of them is called grana or one granum
What type of cells have centrioles animal cells and some protist cells (KNOW ANIMAL CELLS)
What is the function of centrioles? where would you look for them? centrioles help in cell division... they form a spindle to move the chromosomes into new daughter cells... they are located near the nucleus .. a pair of barrel shaped structures..
what two parts make up a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes microtubules and microfilaments... microtubules are thin hollow protein cylinders and microfilaments are thin protein threads
What is the function of the cytoskeleton? this structure supports the organelles in the cytoplasm and helps shape the cells... it is different from other skeletons because it is dynamic and assembles and disassemble constantly
What is found in the Nucleus of a cell and what are two major forms of this material DNA... When the cell is not dividing the DNA is spread out and called chromatin... when the cell is dividing the DNA gets coiled to make it easier to move to new cells and the structures are called chromosomes
What is the nucleolus a dense body in the nucleus that is responsible for making the ribosomes
What encloses the nucleus the nucleus is enclosed by a membrane called the nuclear envelope and it has pores to communicate with the cytoplasm
Created by: shemehl



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