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Unit 6: The Internet

Abstractions, Characteristics, and Influences

IP Delivers packets (Using a routing function) to the destination using IP addresses and packet headers. Defines the addressing method used to encapsulate data.
TCP Provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked stream of packets.
DNS The service that translates URLs to IP addresses.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards and protocols, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
Internet A group of computers and servers that are connected to each other.
Net Neutrality A philosophy that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.
IP Address A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.
Packets Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.
Protocol A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices.
Router A type of computer that forwards data across a network
Network Redundancy Having multiple backups to ensure reliability during cases of high usage or failure. For routers in particular, it means there are multiple paths for the data to travel over, so if one line goes down, data progresses. Allows for fault-tolerance.
HTTP The protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet
URL An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like www.code.org)
Hierarchical Nature There are different levels of classification and adding new subcategories can add more possibilities which allows a system to scale.
SSL/TLS Helps communicate across a network in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping and tampering. Checks a digital certificate from a CA to help ensure the legitimacy of a site.
Fault-Tolerant There is a possibility for things to go wrong. This characteristic means that we are trying to counter that.
Open Standards By giving the protocols out, companies can build their devices to access the internet. This is a form of scaling, since more devices can easily connect so long as they follow protocol.
End-to-End Architecture This is a decentralized structure where much of the processes occur at the ends, rather than between nodes. This makes it difficult to stop the internet since there is not one localized headquarters.
Distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS) They compromise a target by flooding it with requests from multiple systems
Phishing Scam A thief trying to trick you into sending them sensitive information. Typically these include emails about system updates asking you send your username and password, social security number or other things.
Virus A program that runs on a computer to do something the owner of the computer does not intend.
Anitvirus Software Usually keeps big lists of known viruses and scans your computer looking for the virus programs in order to get rid of them.
Firewall Software that runs on servers (often routers) that only allows traffic through according to some set of security rules.
Asymmetric encryption A type of cryptographic based on algorithms that require two keys -- one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public (freely known to others).
Public key A value that can be used to encrypt a message. However, only when combined with a mathematically-related private key, can the message be decrypted.
Private key The complementary key to a public key that is used to decrypt a message.
Encryption a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it.
Decryption a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
Symmetric Encryption Both parties must have the key in order to encode and decode the message, which means they must communicate ahead of time to decide on a key.
Created by: Dhiller