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Chapter 6

Endocrine

QuestionAnswer
Which are the 2 hormones produced /secreted by the posterior pituitary gland? ADH and Oxytocin
ADH Regulates water absorption by kidney (AQ2, controls B/P, decreases osmolarity).
Oxytocin Stimulates uterine contractions and milk letdown (uses positive feeback).
What is the connection b/w the hypothalmus and the anterior pituitary gland? Hypothalmus secretes hormones which travel to the anterior pituitary via bloodstream.
Hypothalmus-> PRH+ (Lacatation) Prolactin releasing hormone is triggered by nursing; breast is empty.
Hypothalmus-> PIH/Dopamine- Prolactin inhibiting hormone is triggered when milk is full; stopped nursing.
Together PRH and PIH/Dopamine control the secretion of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland-> controls lactation.
Anterior pituitary gland->Lactotropes -> Produce Prolactin (PRL); stimulates milk production.
End Organ-> Mammory Gland -> Milk Synthesis
Hypothalmus -> TRH (metabolism) Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Anterior pituitary gland-> Thyrotropes -> Produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete hormones.
End Organ-> Thyroid -> Produces thyroxine (T4) and triiodotyhyronine (T3)
T3 and T4 -> Affects BMR: rate at which body uses O2 to turn glucose into ATP (Increases). How fast you burn calories at rest.
Hypothalmus-> CRH (stress response) Corticotropin releasing hormone
Anterior pituitary gland-> Corticotropes Produces adrencorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanocytestimulating hormoe (MSH)
End Organ-> ACTH stimulates Adrenal Cortex -> Produces Cortisol: secreted during stress to keep GLU levels in blood high enough to support brain activity (Increases)
Coritsol helps... + lipogenesis: stores fat, increase levels of GLU in blood which brain and spinal cord need 24/7, and +alertness/better decisions.
What are 7 hormones that anterior pituitary gland release? PRH, PIH, TRH, CRH, GHRH, GHIH, GnRH
What are the 5 cell types of anterior pituitary gland? Lactotropes, Thyrotropes, Corticotropes, Gondatropes, Somatotropes.
Hypothalmus-> GHRH + (during sleep only) Growth hormone releasing hormone
Hypothalmus-> GHIH/Somatostatin - Growth inhibiting hormone that stops when you are sleep deprived or even stress.
Together GHRH and GHIH/Somatostatin cotrols the secretion of the growth hormone (GH) by the anterior pituitary gland-> controls growth and metabolism.
Anterior Pituitary Gland-> Somatotropes ( Body)-> produces the growth hormone (GH)
GH affects growth during childhood
End organ-> Liver -> Produces Insulin growth factor (IGF) which causes cells to undergo mitosis (epithelial cells) to make new ones or repair cells (SKM) that were used during exercise and Immunity response.
IGF-1 body growth in adults
Hypothalmus-> GnRH Gondatropin releasing hormone
Anterior pituitary gland-> Gondatropes Necessary for testes-> Produces follicle stimulating hormone (FH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
End organ-> PSH-> Ovaries -> produces Estrogen: prepares uterus for pregnancy and Progesterone: maintains pregnancy.
End organ-> LH-> Testes -> produces Testosterone for spermotogenesis, lean muscle mass, and "maleness".
Ultrashort negative feedback negative feedback to organ or origin. Ex: GnRH inhibits GnRH secretion by the hypothalmus.
Short negative feedback Ex: LH which is secreted by pituitary gland inhibits GnRH secretion by hypothalmus.
Long negative feedback Ex: Estrogen secreted by the ovary inhibits GnRH secretion by the hypothalmus.
Endocrine cells are located in where? Pancretic Islets
What are the cell types of in islet of Langerhans alpha cells: secrete glucagon, beta cells: secrete insulin, and delta cells: secrete somatostatin.
Glucagon signals liver cells to release glucose from glycogen stores.
Insulin signals most cell of the body to take up glucose from the blood and promote storage of glucose as glycogen by the liver.
Somatostatin inhibits the release of glucagons and insulin by neighboring cells (paracrine action).
Pineal gland secrets melatonin: induces sleep.
Thyroid produce T3/T4, produces and secrets calcitonin, affect BMR.
Parathyroid glands produces and secretes PTH.
Adrenal medulla ANS, secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Adrenal cortex Aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones.
Thymus T-Cells
Gonads Testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen
Heart ANP
Kidneys Erythropoietin, stimulate production of RBC.
GI Tract regulate digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Liver IGF
Skin Calcitrol/Vit D
Created by: r_saelee
 

 



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