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Chapter 21

Growth and Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
The whole-body metabolism is primarily regulated by hormones.
What always needs a constant supply of glucose as fuel? Brain
Why is important for our body to maintain blood glucose levels? To ensure proper brain function.
Define Anabolism: Synthesis of large molecules from smaller molecules, generally requires energy.
What will require use of energy ATP, will use Calories
Catabolism Breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules, generally releasing energy.
3 Energy substrates from our diet (byproduct that is transported in the blood)... 1. CHO->glucose 2. Protein->amino acids 3. Lipids-> lipoproteins
How does Glucose enter cells? Through glucose transporters (specific receptors for glucose).
What will Glucose do for our cells? 1. Oxidized for energy (Glycolysis)->creates CO2 in process.
Another thing Glucose does when it enter cells is... 2. Converted to Glycogen for storage (Glycogenesis) in liver and skeletal muscle.
Define Glycolysis: Breakdown of GLU for energy use.
Define Gluconeogenesis: (Genesis=Create) Create GLU from fat.
Define Glycogenesis: Create Glycogen (Anabolic)
Define Glycogenolysis (Lysis= Breakdown) Breakdown of Glycogen (Catabolic).
Amino Acids Will enter cells as AA.
What are AA used for? Used to synthesize proteins in translation, used for energy, and stored as proteins in SKM.
Define Proteolysis: Breakdown of protein into AA.
FAT during anabolic, absorptive state: Lipogenesis: Building of FAT from nonlipid nutrients (CHO and proteins.
FAT during catabolic, post-absorptive state: Lipolysis: Breakdown of FAT.
What is TGA?
What are the 2 sources energy comes from? Eating and mobilization (breakdown) if energy stores.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Energy expended by a person who has fasted for 12 hours and is awake, laying down, and is relaxed.
Absorptive States- INSULIN from meal time to 3-4 hours following meal, nutrients are absorbed. USING ENERGY.
Is absorptive state positive energy balance or negative? Positive energy balance+ Anabolic
SKM at absorptive state uses Glucose and FA for their own needs. Glycogensis (for Self): Convert GLU into GLYCOGEN. Converts AA to Proteins.
70% if glycogen is stored where? SKM
Liver at absorptive state uses Glycogenesis for CNS.
FAT at absorptive state uses Lipogenesis
CNS at absorptive state uses Glycolisis
Other Cells at absorptive state uses GLU, AA, FA
T/F: Insulin is used at Absorptive State? True.
Postabsorptive State- GLUCAGON Time b/w meals when nutrients are not being obtained. Fasting= 4 hours w/o food. CONSERVING AND BREAKING DOWN.
Is postabsorptive state metabolism positive or negative? It is negative energy balance- Catabolic
SKM at postabsorptive state uses Glycogenolysis: To fuel self.
Liver at postabsorptive state uses 1. Glycogenolysis->GLU for CNS 2. Gluconeogenesis-> TGA->GLU for CNS, FA for all other cells.
FAT at postabsorptive state uses Lipolysis
CNS at postabsorptive state uses Glycolysis
Other cells at postabsorptive state uses CAN'T use GLU; must use FAT.
What controls during the absorptive and postabsorptive states? Endocrine
Define Insulin secretion is stimulated during the absorptive state and inhibited during the postabsorptive state.
Define Glucagon secretion is stimulated during the psotabsorptive state and inhibited during the absorptive state.
Created by: r_saelee