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OS Chp 14

OS Chp 14 Terms

TermDefinition
802.11 a/b/g/n/ac The collective name for the IEEE 802.11 standards for local wireless networking, which is the technical name for Wi-Fi.
Adapter address A 48-bit hardware address unique to each NIC assigned by the manufacturer and embedded on the device. The address is often printed as hexadecimal numbers. Also called a physical address, or a hardware address.
Address Reservation When a DHCP server assigns a static IP address to a DHCP client. For example, a network printer might require a static IP address so that computers on the network can find the printer
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) An encryption standard used by WPA2 and is currently the strongest encryption standard used by Wi-Fi.
AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) An outdated file access protocol used by early editions of the Mac operating system by Apple and is one protocol in the suite of AppleTalk networking protocols.
Anycast Address Using TCP/IP version 6, a type of IP address used by routers and identifies multiple destinations. Packets are delivered to the closest destination.
AppleTalk An outdated suite of networking protocols used by early editions of the Apple Mac OS, and has been replaced by the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA) In TCP/ IP version 4, IP address in the address range 169.254.x.y, used by a computer when it cannot successfully lease an IP address from a DHCP server.
Beamforming A technique supported by the IEEE 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard that can detect the location of connected devices and increase signal strength in that direction.
Best-Effort Protocol A TCP/IP protocol such as UDP that works at the OSI Transport layer and does not guarantee delivery by first connecting and checking where data is received. Can be used for broadcasting.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) A protocol standard used by cellular WANs and cell phones for transmitting digital data over cellular networks.
Channel A specific radio frequency within a broader frequency.
CIDR Notation A shorthand notation for expressing an IPv4 address and subnet mask with the IP address followed by a / slash and the number of bits in the IP address that identifies the network. For example, 15.50.35.10/20.
CIFS (Common Internet File System) A file access protocol and the cross-platform version of SMB used between Windows, Linux, Mac OS, and other operating systems. Also called SMB2.
Client/Server Two computers communicating using a local network or the Internet. One computer (the client) makes requests to the other computer (the server), which answers the request.
Computer Name A name that identifies a computer, printer, or other device on a network, which can be used instead of the computer's IP address to address the computer on the network.
Connectionless Protocol A TCP/IP protocol such as UDP that works at the OSI Transport layer and does not guarantee delivery by first connecting and checking where data is received. It might be used for broadcasting. Also called a best-effort protocol.
Connection-Oriented Protocol In networking, a TCP/IP protocol that confirms a good connection has been made before transmitting data to the other end, verifies data was received, and resends it if it is not. An example of a connection-oriented protocol is TCP.
Default Gateway The gateway a computer on a network uses to access another network unless it knows to specifically use another gateway for quicker access to that network.
Destination Network Address Translation (DNAT) When a firewall using Network Address Translation (NAT) allows uninitiated communication to a computer behind the firewall through a port that is normally closed.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) A protocol used by a server to assign a dynamic IP address to a computer when it first attempts to initiate a connection to the network and requests an IP address.
DHCP Client A computer or other device (such as a network printer) that requests an IP address from a DHCP server.
DHCPv6 Server A DHCP server that serves up IPv6 addresses.
DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) Refers to removing firewall protection from a computer or network within an organization of protected computers and networks.
DNS (Domain Name System or Domain Name Service) A distributed pool of information that keeps track of assigned host names and domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. DNS also refers to the system that allows a host to locate information in the pool and the protocol the system uses.
DNS Client When Windows queries the DNS server for a name resolution, which means to find an IP address for a computer when the fully qualified domain name is known.
DNS Server A Doman Name Service server that uses a DNS protocol to find an IP address for a computer when the fully qualified domain name is known. An Internet service provider is responsible for providing access to DNS servers to provide Internet access.
Domain Name A name that identifies a network and appears before the period in a website address such as microsoft.com. A fully qualified domain name is sometimes loosely called a domain name. Also see fully qualified domain name
Dynamic IP Address An IP address assigned by a DHCP server for the current session only, and is leased when the computer first connects to a network. When the session is terminated, the IP address is returned to the list of available addresses.
Firewall Hardware and/or software that blocks unwanted traffic initiated from the Internet into a private network and can restrict Internet access for local computers behind the firewall.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol and application that uses the Internet to transfer files between two computers
FTP Server A server using the FTP or Secure FTP protocol that downloads or uploads files to remote computers.
Full Duplex Communication that happens in two directions at the same time.
Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) Identifies a computer and the network to which it belongs and includes the computer name and domain name.
Gateway Any device or computer that network traffic can use to leave one network and go to a different network
Global Address In TCP/IP version 6, an IP address that can be routed on the Internet.
Global Unicast Address In TCP/IP version 6, an IP address that can be routed on the Internet. Also called global address.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) An open standard for cellular networks and cell phones that uses digital communication of data and is accepted and used worldwide.
Half Duplex Communication between two devices whereby transmission takes place in only one direction at a time
Hardware Address A 48-bit hardware address unique to each NIC assigned by the manufacturer and embedded on the device. The address is often printed as hexadecimal numbers. Also called a physical address, an adapter address.
Host Name A name that identifies a computer, printer, or other device on a network, which can be used instead of the computer's IP address to address the computer on the network. Also called computer name.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The TCP/IP protocol used for the World Wide Web and used by web browsers and web servers to communicate
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) The HTTP protocol working with a security protocol such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS), which is better than SSL, to create a secured socket that includes data encryption.
IEEE 802.11ac The latest Wi-Fi standard that supports up to 7 Gbps (actual speeds are currently about 1300 Mbps) and uses 5.0-GHz radio frequency and beamforming.
IEEE 802.11n A Wi-Fi standard that supports up to 600 Mbps and uses 5.0-GHz or 2.4-GHz radio frequency and supports MIMO.
IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol version 4) A protocol used by an email server and client that allows the client to manage email stored on the server without downloading the email. Compare with POP3
Interface In TCP/IP version 6, a node's attachment to a link. The attachment can be a physical attachment (for example, when using a network adapter) or a logical attachment (for example, when using a tunneling protocol). Each interface is assigned an IP address.
Interface ID In TCP/IP version 6, the last 64 bits or 4 blocks of an IP address that identify the interface.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) A group of TCP/IP standards that uses IP addresses that have 32 bits.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) A group of TCP/IP standards that uses IP addresses that have 128 bits
Intranet Any private network that uses TCP/IP protocols. A large enterprise might support an intranet that is made up of several local networks.
IP Address A 32-bit or 128-bit address used touniquely identify a device or interface on a network that uses TCP/IP protocols. Generally, the first numbers identify the network; the last numbers identify a host. An example of a 32-bit IP address is 206.96.103.114.
Ipconfig A Windows command that displays TCP/IP configuration information and can refresh TCP/IP assignments to a connection, including its IP address.
ISATAP In TCP/IP version 6, a tunneling protocol that has been developed for IPv6 packets to travel over an IPv4 network and stands for Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) A protocol used by various client applications when the application needs to query a database.
Link (local link) in TCP/IP version 6, a local area network or wide area network bounded by routers. Also called local link.
Link-Local Address In TCP/IP version 6, an IP address used for communicating among nodes in the same link and is not allowed on the Internet.
Link-Local Unicast Address In TCP/IP version 6, an IP address used for communicating among nodes in the same link and is not allowed on the Internet. Also called local address and link-local address.
Local Area Network (LAN) A network bound by routers or other gateway devices.
Long Term Evolution (LTE) The latest standard used to transmit both voice and digital data over cellular networks and is expected to eventually replace CDMA and GSM.
Loopback Address An IP address that indicates your own computer and is used to test TCP/IPconfiguration on the computer.
MAC (Media Access Control) Address A 48-bit hardware address unique to each NIC assigned by the manufacturer and embedded on the device. The address is often printed as hexadecimal numbers. Also called a physical address, an adapter address, or a hardware address.
MAC Address Filtering A technique used by a router or wireless access point to allow access to a private network to only certain computers or devices identified by their MAC addresses.
Multicast Address in TCP/IP version 6, an IP address used when packets are delivered to a group of nodes on a network.
Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) A feature of the IEEE 802.11n/ac standards for wireless networking whereby two or more antennas are used at both ends of transmissions to improve performance.
Name Resolution The process of associating a character-based name with an IP address
NAT (Network Address Translation) A technique that substitutes the public IP address of the router for the private IP address of computer on a private network when these computers need to communicate on the Internet. See also Destination Network Address Translation (DNAT).
Neighbors In TCP/IP version 6, two or more nodes on the same link
NetBIOS A legacy suite of protocols used by Windows before TCP/IP.
NetBIOS over TCP/IP A feature of Server Message Block (SMB) protocols that allows legacy NetBIOS applications to communicate on a TCP/IP network
Network Adapter An expansion card that plugs into a computer's motherboard and provides a port on the back of the card to connect a computer to a network.
Network Interface Card (NIC) An expansion card that plugs into a computer's motherboard and provides a port on the back of the card to connect a computer to a network. Also called a network adapter.
Node Any device that connects to the network, such as a computer, printer, or router.
Octet In TCP/IP version 4, each of the four numbers that are separated by periods and make up a 32-bit IP address. One octet is 8 bits
Onboard NIC A network port embedded on the motherboard.
OSI Model A model for understanding and developing computer-to-computer communication, it divides networking functions among seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application
Physical Address A 48-bit hardware address unique to each NIC assigned by the manufacturer and embedded on the device. The address is often printed as hexadecimal numbers. Also called an adapter address, or a hardware address.
POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) The protocol that an email server and client use when the client requests the downloading of email messages. The most recent version is POP version 3. Compare with IMAP4.
Port As applied to services running on a computer, a number assigned to a process on a computer so that the process can be found by TCP/IP. Also called a port address or port number.
Port Address As applied to services running on a computer, a number assigned to a process on a computer so that the process can be found by TCP/IP. Also called port number
Port Forwarding A technique that allows a computer on the Internet to reach a computer on a private network using a certain port when the private network is protected by NAT and a firewall that controls the use of ports. Also called port mapping
Port Mapping A technique that allows a computer on the Internet to reach a computer on a private network using a certain port when the private network is protected by NAT and a firewall that controls the use of ports.
Port Number As applied to services running on a computer, a number assigned to a process on a computer so that the process can be found by TCP/IP. Also called a port address.
Port Triggering When a firewall opens a port because a computer behind the firewall initiates communication on another port.
Private IP Address n TCP/IP version 4, an IP address that is used on a private network that is isolated from the Internet. Compare with public IP address.
Protocol A set of rules and standards that two entities use for communication. For example, TCP/IP is a suite or group of protocols that define many types of communication on a TCP/IP network.
Public IP Address In TCP/IP version 4, an IP address available to the Internet. Compare with private IP address.
Quality of Service (QoS) A feature used by Windows and network hardware devices to improve network performance for an application that is not getting the best network performance. VoIP (Voice over IP) requires a high QoS.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) The Windows protocol used by Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance utilities to connect to and control a remote computer.
RJ-45 A port that looks like a large phone jack and is used by twisted-pair cable to connect to a wired network adapter or other hardware device. RJ stands for registered jack. Also called Ethernet port.
Router A device that manages traffic between two or more networks and can help find the best path for traffic to get from one network to another
Secure FTP (SFTP) TCP/IP protocol used to transfer files from an FTP server to an FTP client using encryption.
Secure Shell (SSH) A protocol that is used to pass login information to a remote computer and control that computer over a network using encryption.
Server Message Block (SMB) A protocol used by Windows to share files and printers on a network.
Service Set Identifier (SSID) The name of a wireless access point and wireless network
SIM (Subscriber Identification Module) Card Small flash memory card that contains all of the information a device needs to connect to a GSM or LTE cellular network, including a password and other authentication information needed to access the network.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) A TCP/IP protocol used to monitor network traffic.
SMB2 A file access protocol and the cross-platform version of SMB used between Windows, Linux, Mac OS, and other operating systems.
SMTP (Simple MAil Transfer Protocol) A TCP/ IP protocol used by email clients to send email messages to an email server and on to the recipient's email server. Also see POP and IMAP.
Socket An established connection between a client and a server, such as the connection between a browser and web server.
Static IP Address A permanent IP address that is manually assigned to a computer.
Subnet A group of local networks when several networks are tied together in a subsystem of the larger intranet. In TCP/IP version 6, one or more links that have the same 16 bits in the subnet ID of the IP address. See subnet ID.
Subnet ID In TCP/IP version 6, the last block (16 bits) in the 64-bit prefix of an IP address. The subnet is identified using some or all of these 16 bits.
Subnet Mask In TCP/IP version 4, 32 bits that include a series of 1s and 0s. The 1s identify the network portion of an IP address, 0s identify the host portion of an IP address. The subnet mask tells Windows if a remote computer is on the same or different network.
Switch A device used to connect nodes on a network in a star network topology. When it receives a packet, it uses its table of MAC addresses to decide where to send the packet.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The protocol in the TCP/IP suite of protocols that works at the OSI
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) The group or suite of protocols used for almost all networks, including the Internet. Fundamentally, TCP is responsible for errorchecking transmissions, and IP is responsible for routing.
Telnet A TCP/IP protocol used by the Telnet client/ server applications to allow an administrator or other user to control a computer remotely.
Teredo In TCP/IP version 6, a tunneling protocol to transmit TCP/IPv6 packets over a TCP/IPv4 network, named after the Teredo worm that bores holes in wood. Teredo IP addresses begin with 2001, and the prefix is written as 2001::/32.
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) A type of encryption protocol used by WPA to secure a wireless Wi-Fi network. Also see WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access).
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) A connectionless TCP/IP protocol that works at the OSI Transport layer, doesn't require a connection to send a packet or guarantee that the packet arrives at its destination. The protocol is used for broadcasting to multiple nodes on a network or Internet
Unicast Address Using TCP/IP version 6, an IP address assigned to a single node on a network.
Unique Local Address A address used to identify a specific site within a large organization. It can work on multiple links within the same organization. The address is a hybrid between a global unicast address that works on the Internet.
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) An unsecure method a router can use to allow unfiltered communication between nodes on a private network. Hackers sometimes are able to exploit UPnP, so use with caution.
Virtual Private Network (VPN) A security technique that uses encrypted data packets between a private network and a computer somewhere on the Internet.
Voice Over LTE (VoLTE) A technology used on cellular networks for LTE to support voice communication.
Wake-on-LAN Configuring a computer so that it will respond to network activity when the computer is in a sleep state.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) An encryption protocol used to secure transmissions on a Wi-Fi wireless network; however, it is no longer considered secure because the key used for encryption is static (it doesn't change).
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) The common name for standards for a local wireless network as defined by IEEE 802.11. Also see 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac
WI-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) A method to make it easier for users to connect their computers to a secured wireless network when a hard-toremember SSID and security key are used, and is considered a security risk that should be used with caution.
Wireless Access Point (WAP) A wireless device that is used to create and manage a wireless network
Wireless LAN (WLAN) A type of LAN that does not use wires or cables to create connections, but instead transmits data over radio or infrared waves.
Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) A wireless broadband network for computers and mobile devices that uses cellular towers for communication. Also called a cellular network.
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) A data encryption method for wireless networks that use the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption method and the encryption keys are changed at set intervals while the wireless LAN is in use. WPA is stronger than WEP.
WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) A data encryption standard compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard that uses the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) protocol. WPA2 is currently the strongest wireless encryption standard
Created by: acat521