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Skeletal Exam LASC

this is the musculoskeletal system

QuestionAnswer
Musculoskeletal System Muscles supply energy and that energy turns to motion. Understanding muscular system can provide necessary clues to determining health and disease Movement is on the of most easily observed physical characteristics
Function of Muscles Movement Maintenance of posture and muscle tone Heat production Protection of bones and internal organs
Types of Muscle Skeletal Muscle - Striated Voluntary Cardiac Muscle - Striated Involuntary Smooth Muscle - Non Striated Involuntary
Smooth Muscle Non striated involuntary muscle (Contractions are not under conscious control)
Visceral Smooth Muscle Cells are linked to form large sheets in the walls of organs (Stomach,Intestine,Uterus,Urinary bladder,Blood Vessels,Respiration) , Respond to stretching of the lumen , Does not carry out fine movements, but reacts in rhythmic waves
Multiunit Smooth Muscle Small and delicate movements are needed,Require specific impulses from nervous system to contract
Cardiac Muscle Forms most of the volume of the heart and makes up the majority of the walls of the cardiac chambers. Contracts rhythmically Contracts without any extern
Smooth Muscle “Cruise Control” Breathing, swallowing, posture Striated comes from the microscopic make up of the muscle
Skeletal Muscle Diverse set of shapes, sizes Composed of: Belly Origin Insertion
Muscle Actions Have one job… Stimulated by a nerve impulse > contracts by pulling on its attachment sites > Movement of bones and other structures
How do muscle actions work ? (agonist): muscle group that directly produces a desired movement, Antagonist: directly opposes the action, Synergist: muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists in the action. , Fixator: stabilize joints to allow
Muscle Actions Either flex or extend a joint on the limb Flexion: act of being bent , Flexor surface: decreases the resting angle, Extensor surface: increases the resting angle
Muscle Naming Action: Extensor Carpi radialis m. Shape: Deltoid; Rhomboid Location: Cutaneous truncii Direction of Fibers: Rectus abdominus Number of heads/ divisions: Triceps brachii Attachment sites: Brachiocephalicus
Muscle Attachments Tendons :(Muscle to bone and Gastrocnemius tendon) Ligaments: (Attach bone to bone) Aponeuroses : (Muscle to bone or to another muscle Linea alba)
Extrinsic Muscles Muscle that attach the limb to the body Muscles originate on the neck and thorax and extend to the shoulder or forelimb.
Superficial Pectoral Muscle Origin: Cranial sternum Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus Action: Adducts the thoracic limb
Deep Pectoral Muscle Action Adducts the limb and pulls the limb caudally
Trapezius Muscle Origin:Dorsal aspect of the neck and thorax , Insertion:Spine of the scapula, Action:Elevates and abducts the forelimb
Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Action: Draws limb caudally; flexes shoulder joint
Serratus Ventralis Muscle Origin: Cervical – cervical vertebrae Thoracic – ribs Insertion: Serrated face of the scapula Action: Supports the trunk and depresses the scapula
Infraspinatus Muscle Origin: Infraspinous fossa of the scapula Insertion: Greater Tubercle of the humerus Action: Flexes the shoulder joint and abducts the limb at the shoulder
Supraspinatus Muscle Origin: Supraspinous fossa Insertion: Greater tubercle of the humerus Action: Extends the shoulder joint
Subscapularis Muscle Origin: Subscapular fossa Insertion: Lesser tubercle of the humerus Action: Adducts the limb at the shoulder an rotates forelimb medially. Functions as a medial collateral ligament to the shoulder
Biceps brachii Muscle Origin Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula Insertion Proximal Ulna and Radius Action: Flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
Triceps Brachii Origin: Caudal border of the scapula Proximal border of the Humerus Insertion: Olecranon of the Ulna Action: Extend the elbow and flex the shoulder
Extensor Carpi Radialis Muscle {The largest of the craniolateral muscle group} Origin:Distal Humerus, Insertion:Proximal aspect of the second and third metacarpal bones, Action:Extends the carpus
Common Digital Extensor Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion Dorsal surface of digits II-V Action Extends the carpus and digits
Superficial Digital Flexor Muscle (SDF) Origin: Medial epicondyle of the humerus Insertion: Middle phalanx of digits II-V Action: Flexes the carpal and digital joints
Deep Digital Flexor Muscle (DDF) Action: Flexes the carpus and digits
Superficial Gluteal Muscle (Fibers extend laterally from its origin to the insertion on the femur.) Origin:Sacrum and coccygeal vertebrae, Insertion:Grater trochanter of femur, Action:Abducts the limb and extends the hip
Middle Gluteal Muscle Origin:Lateral ilium , Insertion:Greater trochanter of femur, Action: Abducts the limb and extends the hip
Biceps Femoris Muscle Origin:Ischiatic tuberosity of the pelvis, Insertion:Patella, proximal tibia, and tuber calcanei within the tarsal bones, Action:Extends the hip, flexes the stifle, and extends the tarsal joint
Semitendinosus Muscle Action: Extends the hip, flexes the stifle, and extends the tarsal joint
Semimembranosus Muscle Action: Extends the hip and flexes the stifle
Gracilis Muscle Origin:Pelvic symphysis, Insertion:Cranial tibia, and tuber calcanei in the tarsus,Action:Adducts the limb, flexes the stifle, and extends the hip and hock
Pectineus Muscle Action: Adducts the limb
Adductor Muscle Action: Adducts the limb and extends the hip
Femoral Triangle Contains the femoral artery and vein
Quadriceps femoris (The most powerful extensor of the stifle) Origin:Ilium,Proximal Femur . Insertion:Tibial tuberosity. Action: Extends the stifle joint and flexes the hip joint
Cranial Tibial Muscle Action: Flexes the tarsal joint
Long Digital Extensor Muscle Action: Extends digital joints, flexes the tarsal joint and extends the stifle joint
Gastrocnemius Muscle Origin:Distal femur , Insertion:Proximal surface of the tuber calcanei of the Tarsus , Action:Extends the tarsus and flexes the stifle
Superficial Digital Flexor (SDF) Origin:Distal femur,Insertion:Tuber calcanei and distal phalanges II-V, Action:Flexes the stifle and digital joints and extends the tarsal joints
Deep Digital Flexor Muscles (DDF) Origin:Proximal tibia and fibula, Insertion:Distal phalanges, Action:Extends the tarsal joints and flexes the digital joints
External Abdominal Oblique Fibers run caudoventrally
Internal Abdominal Oblique Fibers run cranioventrally
Transversus Abdominis Fibers run transversely
Rectus Abdominis Fiber run cranial to caudal
Muscles of Neck and Head Vital for neck and head movement, Necessary for chewing that aids in digestion, Important injection site for food producing animals.
Platysma Muscle Action: Draws the commissures of the lips caudally
Temporalis Muscle (Largest muscle of the head) Origin:Parietal bone,Insertion: Coronoid process of the mandible , Action: Elevates the mandible to close the mouth when chewing; moves the mandible laterally
Masseter Muscle Makes up the cheek region Origin:Zygomatic arch , Insertion:Lateral side of the mandible (Massenteric Fossa), Action:Elevates the mandible to close the mouth when chewing
Digastricus Muscle Action: Opens mouth
Bites Alligator has the strongest bite (masseter, temporalis) Yet is very weak when trying to open the mouth
Created by: AmethystJ