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Intro to HR Exam 1

Outsourcing Having another company provide services--most commonly administrative (e.g. healthcare), relocation, and payroll. Generally cheaper, increased HR service quality, protection from lawsuits
Employee empowerment Giving employees the responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service--employees then held accountable for all products/services + share rewards. Managers must keep employees up-to-date, etc.
Sustainability A company's ability to meet its needs without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs--HR systems should promote triple bottom line = focusing on economic, social , and environmental impacts
Sarbanes-Oxley Act Sets strict rules for corporate behavior, especially accounting practices. More open and consistent reporting of data, CEO assurance that data is accurate, code of conduct for senior officers, no retaliation for whistle-blowers, salary disclosure,
Self-service Giving employees access to information about HR issues such as training, benefits, compensation, contracts, enrolling in programs, surveys, etc.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin. Created EEOC. Applies of public and private institutions with 15+ employees. Exceptions: bona fide occupational qualification (can't be race), seniority/merit
ADEA (Age Discrimination in Employment Act) Prohibits employment/pay/benefits/continued employment discrimination based on age--protects anyone 40+. Exceptions: public safety, commercial pilots, key executives. Early retirement incentives? Administered by EEOC.
EEOC (Equal Opportunity Employment Commission) The government's attempt to ensure no employment discrimination (intentional, unequal treatment, unequal effect, continuation of past effects, retaliation)
Equal Pay Act Men and women must be payed the same for equal work (skill, effort, responsibility, working conditions). Exceptions: seniority/merit.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act Amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (EEOC). Treats pregnancies like other temporary disabilities--you can work unless the doctor says you're unable, you can't lose seniority/benefits when you come back, health insurance
Executive Order 11246 Federal contractors with contracts $50,000+ must have written affirmative action programs, signed by Lyndon Johnson
Vocational Rehabilitation Act Requires federal contractors that receive $2,500+ per year to have affirmative action for disabled people. Requires reasonable accommodation and has benchmark of ~8%
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 Overturned Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire (2007), says every paycheck that delivers discriminatory compensation is actionable/resets clock for filing discrimination complaint. Limits awards to two years of back-pay.
Disparate treatment When people with certain IDs are treated differently with intent. Plaintiff must establish prima facie case (looks like discrimination), defendant can argue merit/seniority/BFOQ
Disparate/adverse impact Some device/tool isn't discriminatory but the results are. Plaintiff must establish prima facie case (4/5ths rule--if hiring rate for a group is 4/5 that of the most-hired group, something may be wrong), defendant has to show it's a business necessity
Affirmative action plan components
Quid pro quo v. hostile environment sexual harassment Quid pro quo = when some kind of benefit or punishment is contingent on an employee submitting/not submitting to sexual advances Hostile environment = when someone's behavior makes the workplace uncomfortable for someone of a certain sex to work
Civil Rights Act of 1991 Amends Title VII and ADA to allow compensatory and punitive damages (not just equitable relief) if intentional or reckless discrimination is proven
Bakke v University of California Board of Regents Bakke said he had been discriminated against in admission to UC Davis med school because of a strict quota for POC. The court ruled in favor of Bakke.
Benefits of job analysis Helps understand work-flow process, make good hiring decisions, address performance management/job evaluation
Job analysis methods Interviews/questionnaires with incumbents, managers, people who previously held the job; O*NET
Job description List tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) a job entails (observable actions)
Job specification Lists knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) an individual must have to perform the job
Job design/redesign The process of defining or changing the way work will be performed in a given job
Mechanistic approach of job design Oldest, from early days of industrialization, focuses on task simplification/specification/repetition, people easily replaceable, scientific management, can lead to boredom/lack of morale
Motivational approach of job design Focuses on characteristics that impact psychological meaning and motivation of job.
Job characteristic model (ties in with motivational approach) Describes jobs based on skill variety, task identity, autonomy, feedback, and task significance
Biological approach to job design Ergonomics, minimize physical strain
Perceptual-motor approach to job design Focuses on human mental capacities and limitations--goal is to avoid jobs that exceed people's mental abilities
HR planning and forecasting Determining labor supply + labor demand and then predicting surpluses or shortages
Advantages of using temp workers Flexibility, don't have to pay for benefits, testing and training taken care of, new perspective
Realistic job previews Lower expectations and reduce turnover
Advantages of hiring from within You already know the person and they already know the company, it's usually faster and cheaper, often better performance
Reliability AKA consistency, the degree to which a test is free from random error. Inter-rater and test-retest. Should be at least 0.8.
Validity The extend to which a test assesses and predicts relevant aspects of job performance--selects better employees and helps legal defensibility. 0.2-0.4 is pretty good--0.5 or higher in more physical jobs.
Criterion-related validity Test predicts or significantly correlates with significant elements of work behavior/success. Tested with concurrent validation (measure current employees + compare w/ performance) or predictive validation (test applicants + compare w/ later performance)
Content validation Demonstrating that the content of the test is representative of the content of the job. Used when there's a small sample size, expert judgement required.
Utility The degree to which information provided enhances the effectiveness of the personnel selection process
Generalizability The degree to which the validity of a measure in one context can extend to other contexts
Types of interview questions Situational--what would you do if? Future/hypothetical. Behavioral--tell me about a time when you...? past tense, most popular, based on experience
Instructional design process 1. Needs assessment 2. Ensure employee readiness for training 3. Create a learning environment 4. Ensure transfer of training 5. Select training methods 6. Evaluate the training process
Transfer of training On-the-job use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training. Requires manager support, peer support, opportunity to use what you learned, tech support, and self-management skills
Components of a needs analysis Organizational analysis (is this appropriate for us? does it fit our needs? do we have the budget?), person analysis (training can only impact knowledge/skills/attitudes), task analysis (identifying the knowledge/skills/behaviors training will cover)
Created by: ejrasmus



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