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Vitamins, Minerals, and Trace Elements

A progressive systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptible to fracture osteoporosis
A 25-year old female visits her symptoms: lethargy, sleepiness. Her physician orders laboratory tests and the results are shown below. Serum iron dec, TIBC inc, Transferrin saturation dec, Serum Ferritin dec iron deficiency anemia
a 40-year male patient with hemochromatosis often presents to his clinician with which of the following triad of symptoms? bronzing of the skin, cirrhosis, and diabetes
A deficiency of Vitamin K (manaquinone) can result in which of the following increased clotting time
a patient represents with the following symptoms: loss of appetite generalized weakness and irritability abdominal pain and vomiting bright red tongue skin rash (casal's necklace) pellagra
A patient with megaloblastic anemia would show what? decreased B12, decreased folic acid
a person who is deficient of chromium can develop insulin resistance and glucose intolerance
a person with menke's syndrome will have what kind of decreased results decreased blood copper
aceruoplasmineamia is associated with what kinds of labs decreased blood ceruloplasmin, increased copper deposition in the liver, and increased iron deposition in tissues
an individual who consumes massive amounts of Vitamin C may develop kidney stones consisting of oxalic acid
antimony is used to treat patients with what kind of disease? schistosomiasis
calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium all have what in common? they all exist as free or ionized forms, bound to proteins and complexes to radicals to form salts
cobalt is found in which of the following vitamins Vitamin B12
Decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are seen in patients with what condition? Sprue
Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels are useful for assessing exposure to what kind of metal? lead
free ionized calcium normally represents approximately what percentage of the total serum calcium? 50%
heat inactivation and chemical inhibition are two methods used to measure what analyte? alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes
hemochromatosis is a disease best described as a genetically related disease in which the body accumulates excess amounts of iron
how many pyrrole rings are there in a porphyrin structure? 4
if the pH of a sample decreases, what is the predictable response to the serum magnesium concentration? the concentration will increase
niacin is converted to what two cofactors nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
pellagra is associated with a deficiency of which vitamin? Vitamin B3
Protoporphyrins that chelate iron are called heme
retinol is formed from what vitamin? Preformed vitamin A
rickets in children or osteoporosis in adults can be minimized through dietary supplementation with what? Vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus
scurvy is a disease caused by a deficiency in what? Vitamin C
The addition of sufficient Fe3+ to saturate iron binding site of transferrin is referred to as? unsaturated iron binding capacity
the pathological condition that develops when iron intake falls below the amount required for red blood cell production and iron reserves become depleted anemia
the globin portion of hemoglobin in normal adult humans is composed of which two amino acid chains? two alphas, two betas
the term associated with indirect methods for assessment of vitamin status is termed functional assays
three natural forms of vitamin B6 are pyridoxine (pyridoxol)(PN), pyridozamine (PM), and pyridoxal (PL)
trace elements in biological fluids can be measured using what instrumentation technique atomic absorption spectrometry
Vitamin B12 is also named cyanocobalamin
Vitamin D deficiency leads to what condition? rickets
Vitamin E toxicity has been associated with what an affliction of premature infants who have been exposure to high oxygen therapy and later developed retinopathy of prematurity (formerly retyolental fibroplasias)
Vitamins A, D, and K are classified as fat-soluble
what is the primary route of exposure in humans to mercury inhalation of vapors
What is the primary storage form of iron ferritin
what is the required oxidation state (valence) of iron that enables it to bind to a chromogen in most spectrophotometric assays +2
what is the unique quality that many porphyrin compounds possess that allows for their detection within body tissues and in a test tube they fluoresce and are detected by exposing them to EMP at a specific wavelength
which disorder is associated with a B1 (thiamin) deficiency Beriberi
what can affect the concentration of ionized calcium in the blood pH and temperature
what electrolyte measurements would be of clinical usefulness to the clinician who is treating patients for pregnancy-induced hypertension? magnesium
which of the following has a large amount of aluminum present baking soda saline antacids radiator fluid antacids
what instrument can measure calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in blood samples atomic absorption spectrometer
what is an effect of increased parathyroid secretion increased intestinal absorption of calcium
what would be described as a nervous system ailment because of a deficiency of thiamine beriberi
what is a metal that could be considered a trace element cobalt
which of the following proteins is a copper transport protein that migrates in the alpha2-globulin region ceruloplasmin
what reagent is used to determine the concentration of serum inorganic phosphate ammonium molybdate
what lab results are associated with Wilson's disease decreased plasma copper and plasma ceruloplasmin
What kind of specimen is appropriate to determine exposure to lead? Whole blood
What are the diagnostic criteria for primary hyperparathyroidism detectable amounts of serum PTH concomitant with elevated total serum calcium
Elevated levels of arsenic in serum can be detected for only a few hours (<4) after ingestion. True or False True
which of the following trace elements is NO classified as essential? Fluorine Silver Chromium Cobalt Silver
Zinc plays a vital role in the synthesis of which of the following? glucose low density lipoproteins nucleic acid carboxyhemoglobin nucleic acid
Created by: Mwortman