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A&P Ch2

Chemistry Comes Alive

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 main types of chemical reactions? 1. synthesis reaction (combination reaction) 2. decomposition reaction 3. exchange reaction
When atoms or molecules form bonds to create a larger more complex molecule, this process is called a _______ reaction synthesis reaction/combination reaction A + B ---> AB
Joining amino acids via synthesis reactions produces what type of molecule? proteins
What type of smaller molecules are joined together to produce proteins? What type of reactions is this? amino acids A synthesis reaction/combination reaction
What is the reverse of a synthesis reaction? What happens to chemical bonds? a decomposition reaction. Chemical bonds are broken.
AB ---> A + B is what type of reaction? a decomposition reaction
When glycogen is broken down, what type of molecule does it form? What type of reaction is this? Glucose. Decomposition reaction.
Degradive, or catabolic , processes in body cells are what type of chemical reactions? Decomposition reactioin
What is another term for an exchange reaction? displacement reaction
What type of reactions are the following? AB + C ---> AC + B AB + CD ---> AD + CB exchange reactions/displacement reactions
What type of reaction occurs when ATP reacts with glucose? What does it form? Exchange reaction/displacement reaction ADP and glucose phosphate
What is the short term for oxidation-reduction reactions Redox Reaction
What type of reaction is an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction? An exchange (or displacement) reaction
A special type of exchange reaction in which electrons are exchanged
What are the 3 main types of chemical reactions? 1. synthesis reaction (combination reaction) 2. decomposition reaction 3. exchange reaction
When atoms or molecules form bonds to create a larger more complex molecule, this process is called a _______ _______ synthesis reaction/combination reaction A + B ---> AB
Joining amino acids via synthesis reactions produces what type of molecule? proteins
What type of smaller molecules are joined together to produce proteins? What type of reactions is this? amino acids A synthesis reaction/combination reaction
What is the reverse of a synthesis reaction? What happens to chemical bonds? a decomposition reaction. Chemical bonds are broken.
AB ---> A + B is what type of reaction? a decomposition reaction
When glycogen is broken down, what type of molecule does it form? What type of reaction is this? Glucose. Decomposition reaction.
Degradive, or catabolic , processes in body cells are what type of chemical reactions? Decomposition reactioin
What is another term for an exchange reaction? displacement reaction
What type of reactions are the following? AB + C ---> AC + B AB + CD ---> AD + CB exchange reactions/displacement reactions
What type of reaction occurs when ATP reacts with glucose? What does it form? Exchange reaction/displacement reaction ADP and glucose phosphate
What is the short term for oxidation-reduction reactions Redox Reaction
What type of reaction is an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction? An exchange (or displacement) reaction
A special type of exchange reaction in which electrons are exchanged between reactants (and the electron donor is said to be oxidized, while the electron receptor is said to be reduced) is what type of exchange reaction? an oxidation-reduction reaction/redox reaction
What type of reaction occurs within cells when food fuels are broken down for energy? What is produced in these reactions? oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction for short). ATP is produced
What type of bonds are formed in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions? ionic bonds (because there is an exchange of electrons) Although sometimes there is simply a rearrangement of electrons in covalent bonds
True or False, all chemical reactions result in a net absorption or release of energy True
What are exergonic reactions reactions that release energy (because their products hold less potential energy in their bonds than their reactants did)
What are endergonic reactions Reactions in which the products contain more potential energy in their bonds than the original reactants did. Energy is added/absorbed.
A differing length in the two way arrows indicates what about a chemical reaction? The reaction can go either way, however the longer arrow indicates the general direction the reaction tends to go.
What is chemical equilibrium? A state of balance created when two chemical reactions occur in opposite directions at an equal rate.
Are chemical reactions in the body generally easily reversible? No
What happens during cellular respiration? glucose is broken down yielding ATP, carbon dioxide and water
What factors influence the speed of chemical reactions? 1. temperature 2. concentration 3. particle size (smaller particles move faster) 4. catalysts (enzymes)
what is biochemistry? the study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter
What element do all organic compounds contain? carbon
What type of bonds are formed in all organic compounds? covalent bonds
Are organic or inorganic compounds more essential to life? Trick question. They are equally important
What is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material? Water
What percentage of most cells does water make up? 60-80%
What properties make water so vital to life 1. high heat capacity 2. high heat of vaporization 3. polar solvent properties 4. it forms HYDRATION LAYERS around large molecules (eg. proteins) 5. it is an important REACTANT in many biological reactions 6. it forms a CUSHION around certain organs
What is the "universal solvent"? Why is this so important in biochemistry? Water. (Biochemistry is "wet chemistry." Biological molecules do not react unless they are in a solution.)
Why is the high heat capacity of water important to the human body? It helps prevent sudden changes in body temperature
Why is the high heat of vaporization of water so important to the human body? As perspiration evaporates, large amounts of heat are removed from the body.
Why is it important that water forms HYDRATION LAYERS around large charged molecules such as proteins? it forms a biological colloid shielding the protein from other charged particles and preventing them from settling out of the solution.
A salt is an ionic compound containing cations other than ______ and anions other than _______. H+(hydrogen ions) and OH- (hydroxyl ions)
What are electrolytes? ions, substances that conduct an electrical current in a solution
what are the most plentiful salts in the human body? What do they do? calcium phosphates make bones and teeth hard
why are the electrolyte properties of potassium and sodium ions so important? they are essential for nerve impulses and muscle contractions
What are substances that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts? Acids
Are acids proton donors or proton acceptors? acids are proton donors (they release H+ ions)
What are substances that take up hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts? Bases
Are bases proton donors or proton acceptors? proton acceptors (they take up H+ ions)
The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more _____ the solution is. acidic
the greater the concentration of hydroxyl ions ( the lower the concentration of H+), the more _____ the solution basic or alkaline
How many times more H+ ions would a solution with a pH of 6 contain, vs a solution with a pH of 7? 10 times more (because the pH scale is logarithmic)
The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is expressed in terms of ______/_______ moles/litre (molarity)
What type of reaction occurs when acids and bases are mixed? a displacement reaction/exchange reaction (or more specifically, a neutralization reaction)
Acid + base ---> _____ + _____ acid + base ---> water + salt
what organ(s) regulate the homeostasis of acid-base balance in the body? kidneys and lungs
What are buffers? what do they do? Compounds that resist large swings in pH. They release H+ (acting as an acid) when the pH begins to rise, and bind H+ (acting as a base) when the pH begins to drop.
What are strong acids? acids that dissociate completely and irreversibly in water
What are weak acids? for example? Acids that do not dissociate completely (eg. carbonic acid (H2CO3) and acetic acid)
Do the undissociated components of acids affect the pH? No. This why some acids are weak, they don't dissociate completely.
What are some examples of buffers? carbonic acid (H2CO3) and other weak acids
What are STRONG bases? for example? bases that dissociate easily in water and quickly tie up H+ (eg. hydroxides)
What are WEAK bases? for example? bases that ionize incompletely and reversibly and accept relatively few protons (eg. sodium bicarbonate/baking soda)
The chemical equilibrium between ______ acid ( a weak acid) and _______ ion (a weak base) resists changes in blood pH by shifting to the right or left as H+ ions are added to or removed from the blood. carbonic acid bicarbonate ion
Organic compounds are made by _________ ________ and broken down by _________. dehydration synthesis hydrolysis
What are the exceptions to the generalization that organic compounds contain carbon and inorganic compounds do not? carbon dioxide carbon monoxide
Why does living chemistry depend on carbon? No other small atom is so precisely electroneutral. Because of this carbon never gains or loses electrons, it always shares them. It forms long chain-like molecules such as fats, steroids, and carbohydrates)
How are polymers formed? By combining monomers through dehydration synthesis reactions
What is a dehydration synthesis reaction? a synthesis/combination reaction in which one of the bi-products is water. (eg. when monomers are joined to form polymers)
What is hydrolysis? The opposite of dehydration synthesis. Water is added to molecules to be broken down. (eg. when polymers are broken down into monomers.)
What is released when monomers are joined together to form polymers? What type of reaction is this? Water is released. Dehydration synthesis
What must be added when polymers are broken down into monomers? What type of reaction is this? water must be added. hydrolysis
What type of bond is formed when monomers are joined to form polymers covalent bonds
glucose + fructose ----> ________+ ________ what type of reaction is this? glucose (a monomer) + fructose (a monomer) ---> sucrose (a polymer) + water. This is a dehydration synthesis reaction.
sucrose + water ----> ______+______ What type of reaction is this sucrose (a polymer)+ water ---> glucose(a monomer) + fructose(a monomer). This is a hydrolysis reaction
What are isomers? compounds that have the same chemical formula (eg. C6H12O6) but their atoms are arranged differently giving them different chemical properties.
What are monosaccharides? What is generally the ratio of carbon-hydrogen-oxygen? For example? simple sugars- single-chain, single-ring structures containing from 3 to 7 carbon atoms. 1-2-1 ratio eg. glucose C6H12O6
What is cane or table sugar? sucrose, a disaccharide (glucose + fructose)
What is a disaccharide? a double sugar, which is formed when two monosaccharides are joined by dehdration synthesis.
Can disaccharides pass directly through cell membranes? No. They must be digested by hydrolysis into simple sugars in the digestive tract
What are polysaccharides? What are they useful for? Long chains of simple sugars linked by dehydration synthesis. Ideal for storage due to their high insolubility in water.
What are the ONLY TWO polysaccharides that are important to the human body? 1. starch 2. glycogen
Which storage carbohydrate is formed by plants starch
Which storage carbohydrate is formed by animals? Where is it stored? Glycogen (which is stored in skeletal muscles and liver cells)
What is the major function of carbodrates in the body? Which one is at the top of the menu? To provide cellular fuel. Glucose.
What type of reaction breaks down glucose within the cells? What is formed in this process? oxidation-reduction reaction. ATP
Lipids are insoluble in ________ but dissolve readily in _______ and _______. insoluble in water dissolve readily in other lipids and organic solvents (eg. alcohol and ether)
Lipids are made up of what 3 elements 1. carbon 2. hydrogen 3. oxygen
What are triglycerides? They are "neutral fats", large molecules that provide the body's most efficient and compact form of stored energy. When oxidized they yield large amounts of energy
What two building blocks are triglycerides composed of? 1. fatty acids 2. glycerol (in a 3-1 ratio)
What are the chief components of cell membranes? phospholipids
What are examples of steroids? 1. cholesterol 2. bile salts 3. vitamin D 4. sex hormones 5. adrenocortical hormones
What are the main types of lipids? 1. triglycerides 2. phospholipids 3. steroids 4. fat soluble vitamins
When are fatty acids referred to as being saturated? When their chains have only single covalent bond between their carbon atoms.
When are fatty acids referred to as being unsaturated? When they contain one or more DOUBLE BONDS between carbon atoms
What are transfats? Oils that have been solidified by the addition of H atoms
Why are transfats dangerous? they increase risk of heart disease
What type of healthy fat reduces the risk of heart disease and inflammation? Omega-3 Fatty Acids
What is the basic structural material of the body? What percentage of cell mass does it make up? Protein 10-30%
What are enzymes? globular proteins that act as biological catalysts
What do enzymes do? Increase the speed of chemical reaction and decrease the enrgy input required for the reaction
What does hemoglobin do? transports iron and oxygen
What are the building blocks of proteins? amino acids?
What are the two major types of proteins? Fibrous and Globular
What major functions do Fibrous proteins serve? give examples Structural/mechanical & movement eg. collagen keratin, elastin, actin, myosin
What major types of globular proteins and what do they do? 1. enzymes- catalysis 2. hemoglobin- transportation 3. plasma proteins- regulation of pH 4. peptide/proteins hormones- regulation of metabolism 5. antibodies- body defense 6. molecular chaperones- protein management
Do amino acids act as a)acids, b) bases, or c) both? c) both
What elements are proteins composed of? carbon, oxygen, hydrogen , nitrogen
Proteins are formed by what type of reaction dehydration synthesis
What type of unique bond holds amino acids together in proteins? peptide bonds
What type of protein do two amino acids form? Three? 10 or more? dipeptide, tripeptide, polypeptide
what are the 4 levels of protein structure? 1. primary structure: polypeptide chain 2. secondary structure: primary chains form a-helices and b-sheets 3. tertiary structure: a-helices & b-sheets folded into globular molecules 4. quaternary structure: 2+ tertiary structures = functional protein
Are enzymes used up or changed by chemical reactions? No
What is a substrate? the substance on which an enzyme acts
What suffix is generally applied to enzymes? -ase (eg. lipase, lactase)
What are enzymes called that are not pure protein? holoenzymes
What are the two parts of a holoenzyme? 1. apoenzyme- protein portion 2. cofactor- non-protein portion
What are the largest molecules in the body? nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
What are the structural units of nucleic acids? nucleotides
What elements are nucleic acids composed of? carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus
Where is DNA located within the cell? Where is RNA located within the cell? Nucleus and Cytoplasm respectively
What does DNA do? What does RNA do? DNA directs protein synthesis; replicated itself before cell division. RNA carries out genetic instructions for protein synthesis.
Compare the structure of DNA to RNA double helix VS single strand straight or folded
What are the two major classes of nucleic acids? DNA and RNA
What 3 types of work does ATP do? 1. transport- proteins across cell membranes 2. mechanical- acts on proteins in muscle cells so that they contract 3. chemical- provides energy to drive energy-absorbing reactions
If glucose is an energy-rich molecule, then why do cells need ATP? ATP stores energy in small readily available units
What does ATP become when it releases energy? ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? monosaccharides (simple sugars)
What type of sugar is blood sugar? glucose
What are hydrolysis reactions? decomposition reactions in which molecules are broken down into simpler components by the addition of a water molecule to each bond.
What specific name is given to decomposition reactions in which food fuels are broken down for energy? oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction
What are hydrogen bonds? a weak bond that is more like an attraction than a true bond. Occurs when a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron hungry molecules.
What type of bond forms between water molecules? hydrogen bonds between the dipoles of the water molecules
What is responsible for the surface tension of water? hydrogen bonds between the molecules
define "amu" atomic mass unit
How many amu's is one proton? one neutron? one amu (each)
atomic number- number of protons in an atoms nucleus
mass number- sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons
atomic weight- average of the relative weight of all the isotopes of an element
what is an isotope? atoms normally have the same number of protons as neutrons. an isotope is a structural variation in which there is a different number of neutrons.
What are radioisotopes? isotopes that are unstable and tend to decay/decompose releasing alpha and beta particles (gamma rays)
Are heavier isotopes more or less stable? more or less radioactive? Less stable. Hence they are more radioactive.
what type of radiation do decaying isotopes release? gamma rays (alpha particles and beta particles)
define half-life the time it takes for an isotope to lose half it's radioactivity (this ranges from hours to thousands of years depending on the isotope)
What type of medical scan utilizes decomposing isotopes? PET scan
define mole an element's molecular weight (atomic weight) in grams
What unit is used for solutes in body solutions? Why? millimoles. Because the concentration of solutes in body fluids tends to be quite low.
What is another common term for colloids? emulsions
Are colloids homogenous or heterogenous mixtures? What does this mean? Heterogenous. They appear cloudy and different in composition in different areas of the solution, but they do not settle out
What is a sol-gel transformation. What types of mixtures can undergo this type of change? When a mixture changes from a solid to a gel Colloid (such as jello)
What part of the cell is a colloid? the cytosol
What is a heterogenous mixture with large visible particles that tend to settle out? a suspension
Is blood a solution, colloid, or suspension? suspension
What are energy levels? how many are there? electron shells There are 7 levels in known atoms
In an atom, each energy level holds how many electrons? shell 1 = _______ shell 2 = _______ shell 3 = _______ shell 1 =2 electrons shell 2 = 8 electrons shell 3 = 18 electrons
When is an atom stable? When it's outermost shell is full (contains 8 electrons)
What is the rule of eight/octet rule? atoms tend to react in such a way that they end up with 8 electrons in their valence shell
anions- cations- 1. anions- electron receptors/atoms with a negative charge. 2. cations- electron donors/atoms with a positive charge
covalently bonded atoms that share their electrons equally are called? nonpolar molecules
What is a polar molecule? covalently bonded atoms that don't share their electrons equally. One atom attracts the electrons more strongly resulting in a negative charge, while the other atom takes on a positive charge.
Is water polar or nonpolar? why? polar because the shared electrons are more strongly attracted to the oxygen atom.
What are intramolecular bonds? hydrogen bonds. They are weak bonds/strong attractions that allow single molecules to hold a 3 dimensional shape.
Are anabolic processes in the body synthesis or decomposition reactions? exergonic or endergonic synthesis/combination reactions endergonic (absorb energy)
Are catabolic processes in the body synthesis or decomposition reactions? exergonic or endergonic? decomposition reactions exergonic (release energy)
What type of reaction is a combination of both synthesis and decomposition reactions (bonds are both made and broken)? exchange reactions
What type of reaction is considered both a decomposition reaction (because food is broken down for energy) and an exchange reaction (because electrons are exchanged between reactants)? oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction)
in an oxidation-reduction reaction, the reactant that loses an electron is said to be ________. The reactant that gains an electron is said to be________. Oxidized. Reduced.
Is the formation of an ionic compound an example of a redox reaction? Do all redox reactions require the complete transfer of electrons? yes no
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + ATP This is the chemical formula for what critical redox reaction in living cells? cellular respiration
Created by: middletonc22