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Viral characteristic

Unique properties of viruses Either DNA or RNA, strict intracellular parasite, replicates in host cell, uses host cell to replicate nucleic acid.
viral structure nucleic acid surrounded by capsid and possibly a lipid or polysaccharide envelope
capsid protein shell around nucleic acid
nucleocapsid nucleic acid + capsid
capsomere structural unit of capsid
envelope lipid membrane around nucleocapsid in some viruses- stolen from host cell, factor of antigenicity
vorion complete viral particle
Charactoristics used to classify viruses DNA or RNA, ss or ds, size and shape of virus, envelope, host cell infected, disease produced
prion proteinatious infectious particle, replicate through conversion of other host proteins
diseases caused by prions Scrapie, Kuru, CJD, BSE bovine spongiform encephalitis (mad cow)
Major steps in viral replication attachment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, morphogenesis, release
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) Fever blisters- infect nervous tissue
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) genital area- infect nervous tissue
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) found in the lymphotropic- lympatatic system
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) found in the lymphotropic- lympatatic system
Overall Structure double-stranded DNA genome encodes for 60-120 genes- 1 copy- linear
icosahedralcapsid: 5 diff. proteins
tegument: enclosed a group of protein tha are needed for early infection, they are going to start the replication process. They help turn off the functions
Envelope Viral derives proteins host derived photolipids
Infection cycle 1.Binding invalue viral glycoproteins (gc,gd) Envelope going to search for specific receptors on the host cell
RNA transcription/DNA replication In the nucleus: viral DNA can either circularizeddue to cellular DNA repair enzymes circularized state: the virus becomes latent
In the nucleus: viral DNA can either circularizeddue to cellular DNA repair enzymes or it can remain linearthrough the action of the immediate-early ICP0 protein, which inhibits cellular DNA repair. linear state: a productive replication cycle begins
Two main phases of transcription •Early: ____________________________________________ •Late: ____________________________________________ transcription that occures before DNA replicates
Two main phases of transcription ____________________________________________ •Late: ____________________________________________ transcription that occures during DNA replication
Early transcription Immediately early genes set of 5
Early transcription Immediately early genes MRNA is formed in the nucleus, they are primed by the tegament proteins
Early transcription Immediately early genes MRNA will leave nucleus and enter cytoplasma looking for ribosomes immediate early proteins go back into lucleus- they they will prime the next round of transcription.
Early transcription Delayed early genes 12 geans are needed for the next process structual proteins and replicate DNA
Early transcription Late transcription Structural proteins are being made- host shut down - capsid protein - envelope proteins Start DNA replication Early transcription ends.
all Herpesvirusescan establish latencyin the body after primary infection Latency = virus is dormant in cell
Latent herpes viral genome (DNA) may be circular form inside host cell No treatment to prevent establishment of latent infections. Nor will remove altent virus
Latency occurs within specific nerve cells –HSV-1: trigeninal ganglia
Latency occurs within specific nerve cells ––HSV-2: Sciatic nerve gangha
HSV-1 and HSV-2: are not systemic illnesses will only be infecting one part of your body
systemic illnesses systemic a pathogen able to infect the whole body like to hide inside the cells and avoid the host immune system.
Transmission of HSV1 oral to aral
HSV1 virus multiplies in the epithelia cell of the mouth, throat, face - result distrys some cells
Cells often fuse together producing multinuncleated giant cells
Blisters develop at the inoculation site coldsores-fever blisters saliva and cells secretions contain the virus particle
Transmission of HSV2 spread via break in skin or mucus membranes- most often throu sexual contact will end up having blisters on the external genitalia
HSV2 blister form large multinucleated cells- can have upto 50,000-200,000 virus per cell
HSV2 incubation time 1 week- shedding host cell lyse to reveal virus
HSV2 replication virus will use host machinary to replicate viruses- Shuts down the host matabolism.
What are the two enzymes that virus makes Viral thymidine kinase DNA polymerase
Viral thymidine kinase provide substrates for replication of viral genome
DNA polymerase diff. from the cellular DNA polymerase in subtrate specificity
most effective drug agains HSV Acyclovir (zovirax)
Herpes thymidine kinase add a phosphate group to acyclovir
Cellular enzymes kinases adds 2 phosphate groups
Acyclovir has two mechanisms of action Mechanissm 1 acyclovir triphosphate bond to viral DNA- inactivates
Acyclovir has two mechanisms of action Mechanissm 2 acyclovir triphosphate incorporated in the newly synthesized virus DNA- stops viral replication
varicella chicken pox
Zoster shingles
Created by: kmaemom