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Sanskrit Terms

Sanskrit Glossary Terms - Online PSM Teacher Training

Gyana Yoga of understanding / knowledge / science / self-reflection
Bhakti Yoga of love and devotion
Karma Yoga of action / selfless service
Raja Yoga of techniques / meditation / royal path
Three Gunas That which binds / fundamental quality or property
Sattva Creation / purity / goodness
Rajas Maintenance / transformation / active / excited
Tamas Dissolution / resistance / heavy / dull
Yama Rules of social behavior
Niyama Rules of personal behavior
Asana Seat or position / physical postures / yogic postures
Pranayama Mastering the life force / breath exercises
Pratyahara Directing the senses inward to become aware of the subtle senses
Dharana Mastery of attention and intention
Dhyana Development of witnessing awareness
Samadhi The state of being settled in pure, unbounded awareness
Ahimsa Non-violence
Satya Truthfulness
Brahmacharya Appropriate sexual control
Asteya Honesty
Aparigraha Non-attachment
Shoucha Purity
Santosha Contentment
Tapas Discipline
Svadhyaya Spiritual exploration
Ishwara-Pranidhana Surrender to the divine
Chakras Junction points between consciousness and the body / Energy wheel or center
Muladhara Root chakra
Svadhisthana Creativity chakra
Manipura Energy chakra
Anahata Heart chakra
Vishuddha Expression chakra
Ajna Intuition chakra
Sahasrara Consciousness chakra
Mahavakyas Great sayings or pronouncement. Spoken by a Guru, to create a shift in consciousness of the student
Aham Brahmasmi I am Brahman (Who I really am is absolute reality)
Ayam Atma Brahm Atman and Brahman are the same (the individual Self is one and the same with the absolute)
Prajnanam Brahm Brahman is the supreme knowledge (knowing the absolute reality is the supreme knowledge)
Tat Tvam Asi That is what you are (that absolute reality is the essence of what you really are)
Nadi Subtle channel through which energy flows to all areas of the body. According to Ayurveda, we each have 72,000 nadis of which there are three main ones
Sushumna Nadi Runs through center of spine, channel through which Kundalini rises
Pingala (Surya) Nadi Sun channel, lies to the right of the Sushumna, carries the vital force
Ida (Chandra) Nadi Moon channel, lies to the left of the Sushumna, carries the mental force
Annamaya Kosha Layer of illusion derived from food
Pranamaya Kosha Layer of illusion of biological energy
Manomaya Kosha Layer of illusion of the mind
Buddhimaya Kosha Layer of illusion of the intellect
Ahankara Ego
Brahman Divine Spirit / pure consciousness / beyond space and time without beginning or without end
Jagrat Waking
Swapn Dreaming
Sushupti Deep sleep
Turiya Transcendental
Turiyatit Cosmic Consciousness
Bhagavad Divine Consciousness
Brahmananda Unified Consciousness
Karma Action, consequences of previous actions
Sanskara Seeds of memory, impressions of tendencies stored from past actions
Vasana Seeds of desire
Nistraigunyo bhavarjuna "Go beyond the three gunas, Arjuna"
Sat Chit Ananda Purity Consciousness Bliss
Om Tat Sat That alone is Real
Yogastha Kuru Karmani "Established in Being, perform action" - this is the essence of the teachings in the Bhagavad Gita
Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha "Yoga is quieting the fluctuations or the mind"
Advaita Non-dualism
Adi First
Adi Shankara Great saint from the 7th century, commentator of Vedanta. Led revival of Hinduism and established the Shankaracharya monasteries
Agni Fire, digestive fire, one of the ancient Vedic deities
Amma Mother, mother goddess
Amrit Nectar of immortality
Ananda Bliss
Ashram Retreat center, hermitage
Atman Soul
Aura Luminous radiation, field of subtle energy surrounding the physical body
Avatar Direct incarnation of God
Ayurveda Science of life, mind-body health systems
Bandha To hold, lock or embrace
Bhagavad Gita Epic poem of eighteen chapters
Bhajan Devotional hymn
Bija Seed
Bindu Spot, symbol for the universe in its unmanifest form
Brahma The Creator of the Universe
Brahman The Absolute, totality, all there is
Brahmin Highest of the Indian castes
Chaitanya Consciousness
Deva / Devi God / Goddess
Dharma Purpose in life
Darshan To see or be in the presence of a holy person or deity
Guru Dispeller of darkness, great teacher
Jai Salutation, glory or victory to. Proceeds the name of the person being honored
Japa Repetition of a mantra for a specific number of times
Ji Suffix, added to the end of the name of a person being honored or respected
Jiva Personal soul, the embodied soul which identifies itself with the mind and body
Jyoti Light
Jyotish Vedic science of astrology
Kundalini Spiritual energy lying dormant at the base of the spine which, when awakened, rises to the crown chakra
Lingam Elliptical shape, symbol of the unmanifest form of Lord Shiva
Loka Planes or worlds of existence vibrating at different frequencies
Maha Great
Mahabhutas Great elements
Mala String of beads
Mantra Instrument or vehicle of the mind, sound which protects and liberates
Maya Illusion of the senses
Moksha Freedom, liberation
Mudras Positions of the eyes, hands, or body
Nada Sound, energy manifested as sound
Nakshatra Lunar constellations
Nama Name
Namaha Represents the self, curving back within itself to the unmanifest
Namaste I bow to you - or - the divine light in me honors the divine light in you
Om (AUM) Primordial sound from which all other sounds and mantras have emanated
Pada Quadrant of the Nakshatra
Para Beyond, the transcendental beyond which there is no other
Patanjali Great saint, founder of the Yoga Philosophy which contains the Eight Limbs of Yoga
Prana Life force of vital energy
Pranava Primordial Sound
Prem Love
Puja Sacred ceremony
Pundit Vedic Scholar / Vedic Priest
Purusha Inner Self in the sense of personhood, Cosmic Person or the universe as a single Being
Rishi Seer, one who sees the Truth, highly evolved person
Rudraksha Seeds used for malas, sacred to Shiva
Sadhana Performance of spiritual disciplines to take the practitioner towards an intended goal, usually enlightenment
Samsara Cycle of birth and death
Sanskrit The ancient sacred language of the Vedas
Satsang Gathering of people seeking truth
Seva Selfless service
Shakti Dynamic creative principle, Primal Energy, envisioned as feminine
Shanti Peace
Shiva Unmanifest pure potentiality, the destructive and creative force behind the Universe. The first yogi
Siddhi Yogic powers
Sutras Threads or stitches, collection of statements with inner meanings
Swami Title of respect for a learned or holy person
Tulsi Indian Holy Basil tree. The wood is made into mala beads sacred to Vishnu, Rama and Krishna
Upanishads Collection of 108 Vedic texts exploring higher states of consciousness
Vastu Vedic science of architecture and interior design
Vedanta The culmination of Vedic Wisdom
Vedas The four holy books which are the foundation of Vedic understanding. Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda
Vedasya Of the Vedas
Vishnu Maintainer and harmonizing force of the Universe
Yagna (Yagya) Ritual fire ceremony intended to evoke specific archetypal energies
Yantra Geometric shape / a visual form of a mantra
Yatra Pilgrimage
Yoga Union of the environment, body, mind, soul, and spirit
Yuga Four periods of time: Sat (golden), Treta, Dwapara, Kali (least evolved and present period)
Ama Toxic residue which accumulates in the mind and body
Abhyanga Oil massage
Dosha Mind body constitution
Vata Dosha responsible for movement (elements - space and air)
Pitta Dosha responsible for metabolism, transformation (elements - fire and water)
Kapha Dosha responsible for structure (elements - earth and water)
Prakruti Nature or original doshic proportions
Vrikruti Doshic imbalance
Dhatu Bodily tissues
Mahabhutas Great elements
Akasha Space
Vayu Air
Jala Water
Prithivi Earth
Marma Junction points between consciousness and matter on the body
Panchakarma The five purifying therapies
Ojas Subtlest life essence, which exists at the junction of consciousness and matter, giving strength and vitality
Madhura Sweet
Amla Sour
Lavana Salty
Tikta Bitter
Kashya Astringent
Katu Pungent
Srota Channel of circulation in the body
Tanmatras Subtle elements, sense perceptions
Shabda Sound
Sparsha Touch
Rupa Sight
Rasa Taste
Gandha Smell
Five Kleshas Veils or coverings
Avidya Mistaking the unreal for the real or ignorance
Asmita Holding tightly to the concept of "I"
Raga Attraction to pleasure
Dvesha Aversion to pain
Abhinevesha Fear of ending
Atman Darshan Glimpsing the soul
Created by: chopracenter
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