Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know (0)
Remaining cards (0)
Know (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

C484 - OB&L

Organizational Behavior and Leadership – C484

Heredity ultimate explanation of an individual's personality is the molecular structure of the genes located in the chromosomes. Popular Characteristics include Shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid. These are personality traits.
INTJ visionaries with original minds and great drive - skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn
ESTJ organizers - realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive and have a natural head for business or mechanics
ENTP a conceptualizer - conceptualizer, innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas
Key traits of the Big Five personality model Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional stability, Openness to experience
Extraversion A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
Agreeableness A personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Conscientiousness A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
Emotional stability A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
Openness to experience A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity. Big Five provides a meaningful way for managers to examine personality
Core self-evaluation Bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.
Machiavellianism (Mach) The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
Narcissism The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.
self-monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
proactive personality People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.
Values Lay the foundation of the understanding of attitudes and motivation. Values generally influence attitudes and behaviors. Predict reaction biased on understanding values
Terminal Values End Goals, where you want to be, what you want to achieve. (death)
Instrumental values Behaviors that can get you there.
Hofstede's five value dimensions of national culture Power distance, Individualism versus collectivism, Masculinity versus femininity, Uncertainty avoidance, Long-term versus short-term orientation.
Power distance Power is distributed as unequally
Individualism act of individuals
collectivism Members of groups
Masculinity values such as accusation of material goods prevail
femininity showing good toward others
Uncertainty avoidance People prefer structure
Long-term versus short-term orientation how much do we command respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations
Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Peoples behaviors are biased on their perception of what reality is, not reality its self.
Self-serving bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors.
Fundamental attribution error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
Attribution theory Suggests that when we observe an individual's behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally (who I am) or external (circumstances) caused.
Determination depends on three factors Distinctiveness, Consensus, and Consistency.
Selective Perception Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. Since we can't observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception. Classic example - Dearborn and Simon
Halo Effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. The reality of the halo effect was confirmed in a classic study.
Contrast Effects We do not evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other people we have recently encountered.
Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs.
Rational Decision-Making Model - Ideal way to make decisions 1. Define the problem 2. Identify the decision criteria 3. Allocate weights to the criteria 4. Develop the alternatives 5. Evaluate the alternatives 6. Select the best alternative.
Bounded Rationality Most people respond to a complex problem by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood. Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features.
Intuition An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. The key is neither to neither abandon nor rely solely on intuition but to supplement it with evidence and good judgment.
Overconfidence Bias Individuals who's intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability.
Anchoring Bias Fixating on initial information as a starting point and failing to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
Conformation Bias Type of selective perception -seek out information that reaffirms past choices and discounts information that contradicts past judgment's.
Availability Bias Tendency for people to base Judgments on information that is readily available.
Escalation of commitment Staying with a decision even when where isa clear evidence that it's wrong
Randomness Error Decision-Making becomes impaired when we try to create meaning out of random events.
Risk aversion The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff.
Hindsight bias The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome.
Utilitarian criterion Decisions made on outcomes or consequences
Three-component model of creativity The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation
Focus on rights calls individual to make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges are set forth in documents such as the bill of rights.
Individual Decision Making: Analyze the situation, Be aware of biases, Combine rational and intuition, Enhance creativity.
Motivation the process that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Motivation is not a personal trait.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs ((Old)best Known theory) Physiological, safety, social, Esteem, self-actualization —in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. McGregor theory - Theory X & Theory Y
Theory X assumptions are negative - Employees inherently dislike work and avoid when possible. Must be coerced, controlled, or punishment.
Theory Y Basically positive - he assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
Two-factor theory A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
McClellan's Theory of needs((Old)has the best support/strongest) Three needs - achievement 1. Need for achievement (nAch) 2. Need for power (nPow) 3. Need for achievement predicted relationships
Need for achievement (nAch) The drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed.
Need for power (nPow) The need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise.
Need for achievement predicted relationships High need to achieve doesn't necessarily correlate with good management but a need for affiliation and a need for power do. t, power and affiliation
Self-determination theory Theory of motivation concerned w/the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation & harmful effects of extrinsic motivation. Relates to self-concordance - Considers how strongly ppls reasons for perusing goals are consistent w/their interests & core values.
Job Engagement theory the investment of employee's physical, cognitive and emotional energies into job performance. Deeper level of commitment. Willing to devote yourself to the organization.
cognitive evaluation theory A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling.
Goal-setting theory Clear and difficult goals lead to higher levels of employee productivity, supporting goal-setting theory's explanation of this dependent variable. The theory does not address absenteeism, turnover, or satisfaction, however.
Management by objectives (MBO) A program that encompasses specific goals, participatory set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
Contingencies Feedback, Performance relationship, Goal Commitment, task characteristics and (North America)National culture.
Self-Efficacy theory Self-efficacy an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
The researcher who developed self-efficacy theory, Albert Bandura, proposes four ways self-efficacy can be increased 1. Inactive mastery. 2. Vicarious modeling. 3. Verbal persuasion. 4. Arousal.
Reinforcement theory This theory has an impressive record for predicting quality and quantity of work, persistence of effort, absenteeism, tardiness, and accident rates. It does not offer much insight into employee satisfaction or the decision to quit.
Behaviorism A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
Social-learning theory The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience.
Equity Theory A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
Distributive justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
Organizational justice An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.
Procedural justice The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
Interactional justice The perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect.
Expectancy Theory The perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect.
Expectancy Theory A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Key to understanding the links between rewards and satisfaction. a. Effort-performance relationship b. Performance-reward relationship c. Rewards-personal goals relationship
What is organizational Culture Refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other of organizations.
7 characteristics of organizational culture Innovation and risk taking, Attention to detail, Outcome orientation, People orientation,
Created by: MagsMG



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards