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Research Methods


validity the accuracy of an assessment
scientific method the process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions
inductive reasoning reasoning where the ideas seek to find strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of conclusion
deductive reasoning process of reasoning to reach a logically certain conclusion
concept an abstract idea or thought
construct characteristic/ trait being evaluated
theory contemplative + rational type of abstract or generalized thinking
laws statement of fact, deduced from observation, always occurs
model (3) abstract (concepts only in the mind) economics (theoretical construct representing processes) physical (physical copy of object)
paradigm distinct concept or thought pattern/ universally recogonized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions for a community of practitioners
hypothesis a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
null hypothesis refers to a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena
directional hypothesis the experimenter predicts the relationship that will exist and the direction of the relationship
non-directional hypothesis the experimenter predicts that the independent variable will have an effect on the dependent variable, but the direction of the relationship is not present
variable logical set of attributes, ability to change or adapt
qualitative variable variables that take numerical values and represent some kind of measurement
categorical variable aka qualitative variable classified as being nominal or ordinal and take a value
experimental variable something that the experimenter changes during the course of an experiment
independent variable intentionally changed to observe its effect on the dependent variable
dependent variable variable being tested in a scientific experiment, constant variable
intervening/ extraneous variable hypothetical internal state that is used to explain relationships between observed variables
parameters a numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation
data set of values of quantitative and qualitative variables restated pieces of data are individual pieces of information
quantitative data data that can be quantified and verified and is amenable to statistical manipulation defines
qualitative data data that approximizes or characterizes but does not emasure attributes, characteristics, properties etc... describes
objectivity a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth
rigorousness quality or state of being very accurate
evaluation systematic collection and analysis of data to address some criteria to make judgements about the worth of improvement of somehting
research systematic collection of data to answer a theoretical question