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CIS zCH11 Systems Development and Procurement

7 phases of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, maintenance.
systems development life cycle (SDLC) process that describes the seven steps in the life of an information system
feasibility study part of the information system planning process that examines whether the initiative is viable from technical, financial, & legal standpoints
requirements analysis process by which stakeholders identify the features a new information system will need and then prioritize them as mandatory, preferred, or nonessential.
planning phase define the business need for the project, assess its importance to the company, & determine whether the project is actually feasible.
3 major factors that bolster business need & determine where to allocate funding for systems development projects are: return on investment (ROI), competitive advantage, risk management
analysis phase analyze and document what the system should actually do from the business (opposed to technical) perspective.
design phase makes decisions about the system's architecture & draws up plans that describe technical details
functional requirements system features, prioritized by stakeholders; description of processes the system will support, & the systems input & output
usability requirements ease of learning the software, task efficiency, screen attractiveness
accessibility requirements accessibility for people w/ disabilities
performance requirements response time, reliability, availability, scalability
interface requirements user navigation, data display
security requirements authentication, privacy, encryption
compliance requirements processes & reports required for compliance
integration requirements interfaces w/ other systems
language requirements support for English, Spanish, &/or other languages
development phase converting the design into an operational information system
testing phase goes on during the development phase as individual modules are completed to ensure the system works together
implementation documentation and training to understand clearly how the new system works and how it differs from the old one
Options for implementation parallel, phased, direct
parallel implementation type of implementation in which the new system is launched while the old one it is replacing continues to run so output can be compared
phased implementation a type of implementation in which the modules of a new information system are launched in phases rather than all at once.
direct implementation a type of implementation in which all the modules of a new info system are launched at the same time, and the old system is turned off; also called the "big bang" approach.
maintenance phase during the first few weeks after release, dedicate support ppl are usually on call to resolve technical glitches, train users, correct documentation, & make sure everyone has access to all the functionality they need.
change control process a process orgs use to manage & prioritize requests to make changes or add new features to an information system
legacy systems older systems built on aging or obsolete architectures that continue in use b/c they still function reasonably well & replacing them is costly.
types of software development strategies waterfall, itrative, agile
waterfall software development method in which the systems development life cycle tasks occur sequentially, with one activity starting only after the previous one has been completed
iterative methods strategies that compress the time horizon for software development, partly to reduce the impact of changing business needs & resulting rework. Focus on time avail until next release, or iteration, & devel. team determines how many req. can be delivered
rapid application development (RAD) strategy in which developers quickly bring up prototypes to share w/ end users, get feedback, & make corrections b4 building the fully functional version.
agile software development strategy involving cohesive teams that include end users, & in which many activities occur simultaneously rather than sequentially to accelerate delivery of usable software
scrum an agile process for software development that relies on tightly knit, cohesive teams that do "sprints" of 2-4 weeks each
extreme programming (XP) team-based agile method that features frequent releases of workable software, short time boxes, programmers who work in pairs, & a focus on testing.
pros of custom system development tailored closely to the org's needs, may offer strategic value that contributes to co's competitive advantage, may not require ee's to change their processes
pros of prepackaged software handles processes using industry best practices, requires shorter implementation time, usually carries lower cost, can include vendor's new features & maintains compliance requirements, best for apps that offer few competitive advantages
cons of custom system development usually has higher overall cost, requires more time b4 going live, requires ongoing in-house maintenance - upgrades - compliance
cons of prepackaged software does not match all org's req, might overstate product's capabilities & vendor support, requires org to change biz processes & develop interfaces to other systems, may not have new features or fit enterprise architecture
request for information (RFI) request sent to software vendors containing a high level of description of the info system and org needs, so that vendors can describe their products that may fit
request for proposal (RFP) invitation to software co's to submit formal proposal, including detailed descript of products, services, & costs. Details requirements developed in analysis phase & include info about org's architecture, staffing, & other relevant details
best of breed approach used by orgs in which they procure the best systems for ea application, regardless of the vendor, & then build interfaces among them.
unified procurement approach used by orgs in which they prefer systems from a single vendor, especially to avoid the need to build interfaces
systems integrator a consultant who ensures that the hardware & software components of an information system work together when they come from different vendors
two examples of agile development methods extreme programming (XP) and Scrum.
agile methods of software development require a team-oriented approach
waterfall methods of software development are useful when organizations outsource development to external contractors.
decision about whether to build or buy the system should consider whether a purchased system can handle at least 75% of the org's requirements & whether system is important for strategic reasons. Other factors: cost, time to deploy, architecture, & skill sets
steps of procurement process RFI then RFP
Created by: kld0519



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