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CIS CH4 Introduction to Information Systems

structured information facts & data that are reasonably ordered, or that can be broken down into component parts & organized into hierarchies.
unstructured information information that has no inherent structure on order, & the parts can't be easily linked together.
semi-structured information info category that falls btw structured & unstructured info. Includes facts & data that show at least some structure, such as web pages & documents, which bear creation dates, titles, & authors.
metadata data about data that clarifies the nature of the information
Most important characteristics that affect quality accuracy, precision, completeness, consistency, timeliness, bias, and duplication
accuracy (characteristic affecting quality) mistakes in birth dates, spelling, or price reduce the quality of the information
precision (characteristic affecting quality) rounding to the nearest mile might not reduce quality much when you estimate the drive to the mall, but for property surveys "about 2 miles" is unacceptable.
completeness (characteristic affecting quality) omitting the zip code on customer's address record might not be a problem b/c zip can be determined by address; leaving out house # would delay order.
consistency (characteristic affecting quality) reports showing "total sales by region" may conflict b/c ppl generating rpts are using slightly different definitions. When results are inconsistent, the quality of both reports are in question.
timeliness (characteristic affecting quality) outdated info has less value than up-to-date info & thus is lower quality unless you are looking for historical trends. Actual definition for what is up-to-date varies. W/ stock trading timeliness measured in fractions of a second.
bias (characteristic affecting quality) biased info lacks objectivity, & that reduces its value & quality. To make sales seem higher, a mgr might choose to included canceled orders, though CEO might not be pleased.
duplication (characteristic affecting quality) info can be redundant, resulting in misleading & exaggerated summaries. In customer records, ppl can easily appear more than once if their address changes.
table group of records for the same entity, such as employees. Each row is one record, and the fields of each record are arranged in the table's columns.
record a means to represent an entity, which might be a person, product, purchase order, event, building, vendor, book, video, or some other "thing" that has meaning to ppl. Record is made up of attributes of that thing.
field an attribute of an entity. A field can contain numeric data or text, or a combination of the two.
data definition specifies the characteristics of a field, such as the type of data it will hold or the maximum # of characters it can contain.
batch processing the process of sequentially executing operations on each record in a large batch.
major advantages of a database vs. file processing systems reduced redundancy & inconsistency, improved info integrity & accuracy, improved ability to adapt to changes, improved performance & scalability, increased security.
problems with file processing systems data redundancy & inconsistency, lack of data integration, inconsistent data definitions, and data dependence.
database an integrated collection of information that is logically related & stored in such a way as to minimize duplication & facilitate rapid retrieval.
database management software (DBMS) software used to create & manage a database; it also provides tools for ensuring security, replication, retrieval, & other administrative & housekeeping tasks.
relational database the widely used database model that organizes info into tables of records that are related to one another by linking a field in one table to a field in another table w/ matching data.
database architecture, 3 types of relationships one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many
one-to-one database architecture relationship relatively easy to accommodate & even file processing systems can handle it. Ex: each person has only one birth date.
one-to-many database architecture relationship more challenging than one-to-one; ex. a person might have one or more dependents or one or more ee's reporting to him or her.
many-to-many database architecture relationship more complicated to support than one-to-one or one-to-many; Ex. situation in which a person might be working on any # of projects, ea of which can have any # of ee's assigned to it.
early database architecture: hierarchical resembles an organizational chart or an upside down tree
early database architecture: network resembles a lattice or web rather than the upside down tree (hierarchical). Records can be linked in multiple ways, supporting many-to-many relationships.
modern database architecture: relational maintains records in rows w/in tables, & links btw the tables are created by linking a field in one table to a field in another table w/ matching data. Most widely used.
modern database architecture: object-oriented represents info in the form of objects, & uses object-oriented programming languages to access them; used especially for organizing complex data types such as graphics & multimedia.
modern database architecture: XML organizes data using XML tags; used especially for managing web content & web-based resources.
data model a model used for planning the org's database that identifies what kind of info is needed, what entities will be created, & how they are related to one another.
primary key a field, or a group of fields, that makes each record unique in a table
autonumbering process that assigns incremental #'s to records as they are created to ensure that each record has a unique primary key.
normalization a process that refines entities & their relationships to help minimize duplication of information in tables.
functionality dependent for each value of the table's primary key, there should be jsut one value for each of the attributes in the record, and the primary key should determine that value; the attribute should be functionally dependent on the value of the primary key.
foreign keys primary keys that appear as an attribute in a different table are a foreign key in that table. They can be used to link the records in two tables together.
structured query language (SQL) a standard query language, widely used to manipulate information in relational databases.
interactive voice response (IVR) a technology that facilitates access to the database from signals transmitted by telephone to retrieve information and enter data.
scalability a system's ability to handle rapidly increasing demand.
referential integrity a rule enforced by the database management system that ensures that every foreign key entry actually exists as a primary key entry in its main table.
database schema a graphic that documents the data model & shows the tables, attributes, keys, & logical relationships for a database.
data dictionary documentation that contains the details of each field in every table, including user-friendly descriptions of the field's meaning.
shadow system smaller databases developed by individuals outside of the IT dept that focus on their creator's specific info requirements.
master data management an approach that addresses the underlying inconsistencies in the way ee's use data by attempting to achieve consistent & uniform definitions for entities & their attributes across all business units
data steward a combination of watchdog & bridge builder, a person who ensures that ppl adhere to the definitions for the master data in their organizational units.
data warehouse a central data repository containing info drawn from multiple sources that can be used for analysis, intelligence gathering, & strategic planning.
Examples of internal data sources operational data, customer data, inventory, manufacturing data, archived historical data, metadata drawn from documents - multimedia - & other sources, website traffic data.
Examples of external data sources census data GPS/ Mapping coordinates, and competitor information
data warehouse architectures: relational database co's often use the same relational DBMS for their data warehouse as they use for their operational database, but loaded onto a separate server & tuned for fast retrieval & reporting.
data warehouse architectures: data cubes this architecture creates multidimensional cubes that accommodate complex, grouped data arranged in hierarchies. Retrieval is very fast b/c data are already grouped in logical dimensions, such as sales by product, city, region, & country.
data warehouse architectures: virtual federated warehouse this approach relies on a cooperating collection of existing databases; software extracts & transforms the data in real time rather than taking snapshots at periodic intervals.
data warehouse architectures: data warehouse appliance the appliance is prepackaged data warehouse solution offered by vendors that includes the hardware & software, maintenance, & support.
data warehouse architectures: NoSQL database mgmt systems suited for storing & analyzing big data. NoSQL stands for "not only SQL."
data warehouse architectures: in-memory database relies on main memory to store the database, rather than secondary storage devices, which vastly increases access speeds.
The 3 V's that are the defining features of big data volume, velocity, and variety
3 V's defining features of big data: Volume data collections can take up petabytes of storage, & are continually growing.
3 V's defining features of big data: Velocity many data sources change & grow at very fast speeds. The nightly ETL process often used for data warehouses is not adequate for many real-time demands.
3 V's defining features of big data: Variety relational databases are very efficient for structured info stored in tables, but businesses can benefit from analyzing semi-structured & unstructured data as well.
extract, transform, and load (ETL) a common strategy for drawing info from multiple sources by extracting data from its home database, transforming & cleansing it to adhere to common data definitions, & then loading it into the data warehouse.
big data collections of data that are so enormous in size, so varied in content, & so fast to accumulate that they are difficult to store & analyze using traditional approaches.
data mining a type of intelligence gathering that uses statistical techniques to explore records in a data warehouse, hunting for hidden patterns & relationships that are undetectable in routine reports.
information resources can be described as.... structured, unstructured, or semi-structured
the quality of information is affected by several characteristics, such as: accuracy, precision, completeness, consistency, & timeliness.
management information with the help of computers relies on use of... tables, records, & fields, and each field should have a data definition.
most widely used database relational database
relationships between tables are created by.... linking a field in one table to a field in another table w/ matching data.
the development of a relational database begins with the planning phase
the planning phase of a relational database does what? identify the entities, their attributes, and their relationships.
normalcy in the development of a relational database tables are created in such a way as to eliminate redundancy a much as possible and ensure that tables can be related to one another in a way that reflects their actual relationship.
primary keys ensure each record in a table is unique, & foreign keys help establish relationships among tables.
information is retrieved from the database using... query languages, such as SQL
integration strategies, like master data management, are needed to... coordinate how data are entered & provide enterprise-wide summaries for strategic planning.
the data warehouse draws information from multiples sources to create one information storehouse that can be used for... reporting, analysis, and research.
sources can be both... internal and external
3 steps used to create the warehouse, which is refreshed w/ updated info daily or more often extract, transform, and load
big data refers to... immense data collections that feature the 3 V's: high volume, velocity, and variety
data ownership issues arise because data have to be shared by all the stakeholders in the organization, and also for databases w/o boundaries like Craigslist - records entered by someone outside of the org.
what is needed to balance all the stakeholders' requirements? leadership, cooperation, negotiation, & a well-designed database.
3 categories that describe the nature of information resources structured information, unstructured information, and semi-structured information
nature of info resources: structured information based on facts and data; info in ordered parts that can be broken down into hierarchy; transaction sales w/ distinct fields for customer #, date, type of order, amt paid, etc.
nature of info resources: unstructured information no particular structure or order; photos, handwritten notes, etc.
nature of info resources; semi-structured information web pages w/ date, title, author or spreadsheets used by multiple ppl to track info;
what does metadata describe for structured data describes and provides info about every field, table, and corresponding relationship.
what does metadata describe for unstructured and semi-structured data used for describing the properties of a document or resource that are useful as it layers the structure on information.
characteristics of information that affect quality are... accuracy, precision, completeness, consistency, timeliness, bias, and duplication.
example of accuracy (a characteristic of info that affects quality) information mistakes decrease the accuracy of information, like incorrect dates, spelling, or price.
example of precision (a characteristic of info that affects quality) rounding to the nearest digit, rounding speeds or distances can sometimes affect the precision.
example of completeness (a characteristic of info that affects quality) omitting information like a house number on an address
example of consistency (a characteristic of info that affects quality) different people submitting information have a slightly different definition for details.
example of timeliness (a characteristic of info that affects quality) up-to-date information may be annually for some or to the second for others
example of bias (a characteristic of info that affects quality) quality of information decreases - keeping records up-to-date for a certain set and not for another
example of duplication (a characteristic of info that affects quality) some records may duplicate, leading to inaccurate or incorrect information
early design approaches to managing info resources were early designs placed documents in envelopes and eventually files in a filing cabinet, which eventually transferred to a computer
major disadvantages of file processing systems data redundancy and inconsistency, lack of data integration, inconsistent data definitions, and data dependence.
data redundancy and inconsistency 2 separate departments might spell an ee's name differently, leading to 2 records for the same ee.
lack of data integration different systems may only allow certain information that was contained in the old records.
inconsistent data definitions different programmers writing code may write the background information differently
data dependence certain programs interconnect and depend on one another
the 3 architectures that emerged for integrated databases are one-to-one (easy), one-to-many (one super w/ many employees tied together), and many-to-many relationships (difficult to support)
steps in planning a relational data model develop data model for what will be tracked & how it relates to the other (entities and attributes), identify primary keys and uniqueness, normalize data model to minimize duplication
how are primary keys and foreign keys used to create links btw tables in a relational database the databases are connected in a meaningful way, which will relate the 2 tables. Usually the primary in 1 is the foreign in another
what is the typical strategy to access a database most use an application interface where they can access, edit, and retrieve information safely and securely.
what is the role of a database administrator a DBA monitors and optimizes performance of databases, troubleshoots, protects, backs-up, and helps develop new. One of the fastest developing careers in US
how is SQL used to query a database Structured Query Language is a programming language that tells the database how to respond/ format
how is IVR used to query a database Interactive Voice Response uses transmitted signals from the phone to retrieve info from an account,or select #'s/ options.
what are shadow systems and why are they sometimes used in organizations smaller databases created by individuals outside of IT to focus on the creator's specific information. Used to get jobs done more efficiently and can be created w/ Access or Excel. Bad if person leaves.
role of master data management in an organization's integration strategy help to achieve uniform definitions so that everyone is using the terms in the same manner for accuracy
3 steps in building a data warehouse extract, transform, load
internal sources of data for a data warehouse customer records, transactions, inventory, assets, HR.
external sources of data for a data warehouse census data, GPS mapping or coordinates, competitor information
4 examples of data warehouse architecture relational database, data cube, virtual federated warehouse, and data warehouse appliance
which approach of data warehouse architecture is suitable for today? virtual federated warehouse because it gives real-time information vs. periodic snapshots
difference btw data mining and data dredging data mining is finding hidden data and data dredging is finding the relationships between the data.
examples of databases w/o boundaries people away from the enterprise enter and manage records
ownership issues affect information management... companies may set policies that they own information on their devices, like flash drives or computers
Information management needs differ among stakeholder groups by leadership, cooperation, negotiation, and a well-designed database
Created by: kld0519