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CIS CH3 Info & Communications Technologies

enterprise architecture EA; roadmap created by an organization to describe its current situation & where it should head to achieve its mission, focusing on biz strategy & tech infrastructure required to achieve it.
these create enterprise architecture hardware, software, & telecommunications
4 hardware components of a computer input, output, process, storage
computer any electronic device that can accept, manipulate, store, & output data, & whose instructions can be programmed.
ASCII code a code that defines how keyboard characters are encoded into digital strings of ones & zeros.
keyboard shortcut CTRL+C Copy selected text
keyboard shortcut CTRL+V paste
keyboard shortcut CTRL+S save current document
keyboard shortcut CTRL+Z undo
keyboard shortcut CTRL+F open a Find window
input devices 1/4 hardware components: keyboard, mouse, joystick, graphics tablet, touch-screen, microphones, scanners, sensors, cameras
optical scanners electronic devices that capture text or images & convert them to digital format
QR code quick response code invented by Toyota to track vehicles in the factory, which is now used widely in advertising
optical character recognition (OCR) capability of specialized software to interpret the actual letters & #'s on a page to create a digital document that can be edited, rather than a flat picture.
radio frequency identification (RFID) technology placed on tags w/ small chips equipped w/ microprocessor & sometimes a battery that stores info on tagged object's history
microprocessor a tiny antenna to receive & transmit data
output devices 1/4 hardware components: display on a monitor, cellphone or handheld device/ tablet, printers, speakers.
central processing unit CPU; brain of a computer, which handles info processing, calculations, & control tasks.
transistor small electrical circuit made from a semiconductor material such as silicone
Moore's Law a principle named for computer executive Gordon Moore, which states that advances in computer technology, such as processing speed or storage capabilities, doubles about every 2 years.
byte measurement unit for computer storage capacity; a byte holds 8 zeros and ones & represents a single character.
random access memory RAM; a computer's primary temporary storage area accessed by the CPU to execute instructions.
in-memory computing refers to the use of primary storage as the main place info is stored, rather than in secondary storage devices such as hard drives, to vastly increase speed.
mainframe developed for LG biz in the 60's aka "big iron," still used for massive bulk processing tasks & financial transactions requiring high reliability. Deployed as servers for LG networks. Dominated by IBM
supercomputer from 60's, high-end computers featuring the fastest processors for calculation-intensive tasks in areas such as physics, weather modeling, & molecular analysis
minicomputer smaller size than mainframes, worked for small & midsized businesses through 90's & were replaced by PC servers. Now called midrange & are used as servers.
microcomputer PC's for short, 90's, replacing the dumb terminals & offering far more capability on the desktop. Powerful ones used as servers.
laptop integrated display screens & portability, battery-powered popular in late 80's for mobility. Run much the same software as desktops but slower. Many now touchscreen
netbook engineered to be smaller and cheaper than laptops, 2000's - cost-effective wireless connection to Internet, widespread distribution.
smartphones 90's, combine cellphone capabilities w/ data communications for web browsing, email, & text messages
tablet mobile device w/ large touchscreen & virtual keyboard; smaller & thinner than laptop & larger than smartphone. Popular w/ introduction of iPad.
Processing device 1/4 hardware components; computer's brain is CPU (central processing unit),
Storage device 1/4 hardware components; measured by byte; primary storage or secondary storage
primary storage typically on integrated circuits located close to CPU, & includes RAM.
secondary storage computer hard drives, optical disks like CD-ROMs and DVDs, flash memory, memory cards, cloud.
business drivers that affect storage decisions access, speed, cost, & safety.
organizations must have their most important data easily accessible to... respond to customer queries & process transactions.
organizations must have safety because... data must be backed up & storage solutions depend partly on how much downtime the organization can risk.
Kilobyte KB, 1,024 bytes; a short, text-only email message
Megabyte MB, 1024^2 bytes; a digital song runs about 3 MB
Gigabyte GB, 1024^3 bytes; about 1 hour of TV recording (not HD)
Terabyte TB, 1024^4 bytes; about 150 hours of HD video recording
Petabyte PB, 1024^bytes; eBay's database: 52 PB (2012)
software computer component that contains the instruction that directs computer hardware to carry out tasks - it processes the zeros and ones and is the brain of the info system
application software type of software used to support a wide range of individual & business activities, such as transaction processing, payroll, word processing, & video editing.
system software type of software that controls basic computer operations such as file mgmt, disk storage, hardware interfaces, & integration w/ the application software.
operating system (OS) category or system software that performs a variety of critical basic tasks, such as handling device input & output, maintaining file structures, & allocating memory.
application software word processing, spreadsheets, graphics, video, email, browsers, business apps, transaction processing, manufacturing, CRM, acct'g, HR, databases
system software utilities (security, file mgmt, device control, communications, disk cleaners), operating system, hardware
antivirus software protects against viruses & other malicious code
disk defragmenter optimizes disk performance by moving parts of the same file to continguous sectors on the hard drive
compression software reduces file sizes to conserve disk space
shredder makes deleted files completely unrecoverable
recovery assists with the recovery of deleted files
file management assists w/ tasks such as renaming groups of files, changing file attributes, & others
COBOL one of the oldest languages, but more than 200 billion lines of code are still in use for legacy business applications
FORTRAN older language in special projects involving intensive calculations
C++ widely used object-oriented language w/ considerable support from vendors
Java object-oriented language widely used in web development projects, & designed to run on many different platforms.
.NET Microsoft's proprietary language used in its development environment
Python dynamic object-oriented language that runs on a variety of platforms, including smartphones; its growing in popularity
PHP open source programming language that can be embedded in HTML that helps create dynamic web pages in software such as WordPress
utility software the category of system software that includes programs to perform specific tasks that help manage, tune, & protect the computer hardware & software.
programming language an artificial language used to write software that provides the instructions for the computer about how to accept info, process it, & provide output
legacy systems older info systems that remain in use b/c they still function & are costly to replace
source code all the statements that programmers write in a particular programming language to create a functioning software program.
object-oriented programming a type of software programming that focuses on "objects" rather than lists of instructions & routines to manipulate data.
commercial off-the-shelf COTS; commercially available computer software that is ready to buy, install, & use.
software as a service SaaS; a type of commercially available software that is owned, hosted, & managed by a vendor, & accessed by customers remotely, usually via the Internet.
open source software a type of software whose licensing terms comply w/ criteria such as free distribution, so other ppl can access the source code to improve it, build upon it, or use it in new programs
network a group of interconnected devices, such as computers, phones, printers, or displays, that can share resources & communicate using standard protocols.
bits per second bps; the measurement of transmission speed, defined as the # of bits transmitted each second
each "bit" is... a single zero or one & a string of 8 bits makes a byte.
bandwidth the maximum amount of information in bits per second that a particular channel can transmit
twisted pair of wires the most common form of wired media, these wires consist of thin, flexible copper wires used in ordinary phones.
coaxial cables wired medium, initially used for cable TV, consisting of a single inner conductor wire (typically copper) surrounded by insulation, which is then surrounded by a mesh-like conductor
optical fiber cables that transmit bits by the means of light pulses along a glass or plastic fiber instead of electrical signals over a conductor; ideally suited for long distances.
twisted pair wire insulated copper wires that are also used for phones: somewhat fragile, but flexible enough to wind through ceilings & walls.
coaxial cable thick cables w/ a single inner conductor core, usually copper, & a surrounding a mesh. Faster transmission than twisted pair, & already installed in many homes served by cable TV
optical fiber transmit signals w/ light pulses along a glass or plastic fiber, rather than electrical signals over a conductor. Fastest transmission speed & highest bandwidth, ideal for long distances b/c signals do not degrade.
types of wired media twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, & optical fiber.
wireless media electromagnetic waves transmit data wirelessly
electromagnetic waves the radiation associated w/ electric & magnetic fields. aka light
L to R order of the electromagnetic spectrum radio, WiFi (cell phones), microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma ray.
wavelength the distance btw one peak of an electromagnetic wave to the next
hertz Hz; the number of cycles per second of a wave
microwave transmission the technology involving signals in the gigahertz range that are transmitted to relays in the line of sight
Long wavelengths look long, with a lot of space btw peaks
Short wavelengths look short, with minimal space btw peaks
10^3 radio
10^-2 microwave
WiFi & cell phones fall between these two on the electromagnetic spectrum radio & microwave
10^-5 infrared
10^-6 visible
10^-8 ultraviolet
10^-10 x-ray
10^-12 gamma ray
wifi short for wireless fidelity; refers to a computer network in which connections rely on radio waves at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz for transmission
wireless router a device connected to a computer network that emits digital signals from its antenna & enables wireless connectivity to the network
Bluetooth a technology that uses radio waves for connectivity, commonly used for wireless connections over very short distances
digital subscriber line DSL; technology that supports high speed two-way digital communication over twisted pair phone lines
local area network LAN; a network that connects devices such as computers, printers, & scanners in a single building or home
circuit-switched network a type of network in which the nodes communicate by first enabling a dedicated channel btw them.
PAN - personal area network 20-30ft, for devices w/in reach
LAN - local area network home, office, school, building
CAN - campus (or corporate) area network interconnected LANs encompassing several buildings for a university or corporate campus.
MAN - metropolitan area network interconnected LANs or CANs for a city
WAN - wide area network interconnected LANs, CANs, or MANs covering a wide geographic area
GAN - global area network supports mobile communications across the globe, using a mix of satellite or other strategies.
packet switching a technology used by networks in which data is broken into segments, called packets, for transmission. The packets contain info about their destination & position in the whole message, & they are reassembled at the receiving end.
voice over IP (VoIP) the technologies that make voice communications across networks using packet switching feasible, including those used over the Internet
client-server network a type of network in which the workload for running applications is shared btw the server & client devices, such as desktop computers, laptops, or smartphones.
n-tier type of network architecture in which several servers, specialized for particular tasks, may be accessed by a client computer to perform some activity, such as retrieving a bank balance.
peer-to-peer network type of network in which there is no central server & computers can share files, printers, & an Internet connection w/ one another.
Ethernet a communication protocol widely used for local area networks
TCP/IP abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol & Internet Protocol; used for Internet communications
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) The next generation protocol for the Internet, which will support far more IP addresses compared to the current scheme
WiMax technology that relies on microwave transmissions to blanket large metropolitan areas from microwave towers, usually on buildings.
virtualization cost-cutting approach to servers in which multiple operating systems run concurrently on a single physical server
private branch exchange (PBX) technology that manages all the office phone lines, voice mail, internal billing, call transfers, forwarding, conferencing, & other voice services
cloud computing ICT architecture in which users access software apps & info systems remotely over the Internet, rather than locally on an individual PC or from servers in the org's data center.
SaaS software as a service, software through the cloud
is primary or secondary storage faster? primary
open source software licensing terms that call for free redistribution; developed by volunteer communities & carries no licensing costs
networks connect... computers & other devices, & their transmission media can be wired or wireless
enterprise architecture organization's master blueprint that describes its current environment, its future state, & the roadmap for achieving it.
Created by: kld0519