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The DNA Story

Chapter 4: The DNA StoryChromosomes, Genes and Genomics

TermDefinition
Anticodon The three-base sequence on the tRNA molecule that binds to the codon on the mRNA molecule during translation
Bacteriophage A virus that infects and replicates within bacterial cells
Central Dogma The doctrine that DNA codes for RNA through transcription and RNA is converted to protein through translation
Chromosome The structure in the nucleoid or cell nucleus that carries heredity information in the form of genes
Codon The three-base sequence on the mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid insertion into a polypeptide
Comparative Genomics The comparison of DNA sequences between organisms
Deoxyribonucleic Acid The genetic material of all cells and many viruses
DNA polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes DNA replication by combining complementary nucleotides into an existing strand
Double Helix The structure of DNA, in which the two complementary strands are connected by hydrogen bonds
Exon Any segment of a gene that is transcribed and retained in the final messenger RNA product
Gene A segment of a DNA molecule that provides the biochemical information for a functional product
Gene Expression The process by which the information in a gene is transcribed and translated into protein
Genetic Code The specific order of nucleotide sequences on DNA or RNA that encode specific amino acids for protein synthesis
Genomics The identification and study of gene sequences in an organism’s DNA
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring
Human Endogenous Retrovirus Virus genes that are incorporated into human chromosomes and comprise up to 10% of the human genome
Human Genome The complete set of genetic information in a human cell
Human Genome Project An international scientific research project that sequenced the human DNA in a cell, and is identifying and mapping all of the genes
Human Microbiome The community of microorganisms and viruses that normally resides on the surface of the skin and in the mouth, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of the human body
Intron A section of noncoding DNA that is removed after transcription by splicing the mRNA transcript
Messenger RNA An RNA transcript containing the information for synthesizing a specific polypeptide
Metagenome The collective genomes from a population of organisms
Metagenomics The study of genes isolated directly from environmental samples
Microbial Forensics The discipline involved with the recognition, identification, and control of a pathogen
Microbial Genomics The discipline of sequencing, analyzing, and comparing microbial genomes
Microbiome A specific environment characterized by a distinctive microbial community and its collective genetic material
Nucleotide A component of a nucleic acid consisting of a carbohydrate molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Operon The unit of bacterial DNA consisting of a promotor, operator, and a set of structural genes
Promoter Site The region of a template DNA strand or operon to which RNA polymerase binds
Repressor Protein A protein that, when bound to the operator, blocks transcription
Ribonucleic Acid The nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis and gene control
Ribosomal RNA An RNA transcript that forms part of the ribosomes structure
Ribosome A cellular component comprised of RNA and protein that participates in protein synthesis
RNA polymerase The enzyme that synthesizes an RNA polynucleotide from a DNA template
Semiconservative Replication The DNA copying process where each parent (old) strand serves as a template for a new complementary strand
Transcription The biochemical process in which RNA is synthesized according to a code supplied by the bases of a gene in the DNA molecule
Transfer RNA A molecule of RNA that unites with amino acids and transports them to the ribosome in protein synthesis
Translation The biochemical process in which the code on the mRNA molecule is made into a sequence of amino acids
Created by: drmicro