Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

Normal Size Small Size show me how

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# Physics - Quiz Bowl

### quiz bowl physics data

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Kinematics | branch of mechanics that deals with pure motion |

Kinetics | the branch of mechanics that deals with the actions of forces in producing or changing the motion of masses |

Statics | branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium |

Dynamics | deals with the motion and equilibrium of systems under the actions of forces |

Three/Four Fundamental Forces | Gravity, Strong Nuclear, Electroweak (Weak Nuclear and Electromagnetic) |

Moment of Inertia | Resistance to rotational motion equal to the products of the mass and the square of the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation of each particle in a body |

Torque | product of force and the lever arm; produces or tends to produce torsion or rotation |

Hooke's Law | Elastic force of a spring or similar object (F=-kx) |

Coulomb's Law | force between two charged particles are inversely squared |

Maxwell's Equations | Gauss's Laws, Faraday's Law, and Ampere's Law with Maxwell's correction |

Gauss's Law | relates electric charge to electric field |

Gauss's Law for magnetism | magnetic monopoles do not exist |

Faraday's Law | Induced EMF in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit |

Ampere's Law | relates electric current to magnetic field produced; related to Biot-Savart Law |

Lorentz Force | force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields |

Kirchoff's Current Law | total current into a point on a circuit equals total current out |

Kirchoff's Voltage Law | total potential difference around a loop equals zero |

Lens'z Law | "induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose.. change causing it"; nature abhors changes in flux |

Joule's First Law | power produced (dissipated as heat) in a resistor |

Aerodynamics | study of the flow of gases |

Archimedes' Principle | bouyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced |

Pascal's Law | pressure change is conveyed uniformly throughout a fluid |

Bernoulli's Principle | relates kinetic and potential energies to pressure in fluid flows |

Navier-Stokes Equations | PDEs that determine motion of particles in a fluid (most of CFD) |

LASER | Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation; coherent beam of light |

Critical Angle | smallest angle for total internal refraction |

Fluorescence | emission of radiation by an object as a result of absorption of other radiation |

Photon | single unit of EM radiation; particle/wave duality |

Doppler Effect | apparent shift in frequency from moving source |

Fermat's Principle | between any two points, light takes the path that requires the least time |

Snell's Law (of Refraction) | index of refraction *sin of angle = constant |

Huygens(-Fresnel) Principle | wave fronts serve as sources of new wavelets (diffraction, etc.) |

Young's Double Slit | proved wave nature of light by demonstrating diffraction |

Planck Relation | relates frequency and energy by namesake constant (E=hv) |

Enthalpy (H) | internal energy plus pressure times volume |

Entropy (S) | a measure of disorder based on the number of equivalent micro states |

Helmholtz Free Energy | useful work attainable from a closed system |

Gibbs Free Energy | useful work attainable from an isothermal, isobaric system |

Carnot Engine | heat engine with cycle of isothermal expansion, isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expanstion, isothermal compression, and isentropic compression |

Fusion/Melting | transition from solid to liquid phase |

Freezing | transition from liquid to solid phase (opposite of melting) |

Sublimation | transition directly from solid to gas phase |

Deposition | transition directly from gas to solid phase (opposite of sublimation) |

Gasization | transition from liquid to gas phase |

Boiling | gasization originating with sub-surface bubbles |

Kelvin (SI Unit) | starts at absolute zero; increments equal to 1 C |

Celsius (Centigrade) | defines with 0C as freezing point of water and 100C as boiling point |

Fahrenheit | water freezes at 32F, boils at 212F; zero is temp of ammonium chloride and ice |

Rankine | starts at absolute zero; increments equal to 1F |

Isobaric | constant pressure |

Isothermal | constant temperature |

Isochoric | constant volume |

Adiabatic | no heat flow |

0th Law of Thermodynamics | transitive property of thermal equilibrium |

1st Law of Thermodynamics | change in internal energy is sum of heat into the system and work done by the system |

2nd Law of Thermodynamics | Total entropy of any isolated system tends to increase over time |

3rd Law of Thermodynamics | processes cease and entropy goes to zero at absolute zero |

Carnot's Theorem/Rule | no engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a comparable Carnot Engine |

Joule's Second Law | internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on temperature |

Fermions | elementary particles with half-integer spin (1/2 for all known fermions) |

Quarks | Type of fermion that are components of hadrons; only known fractional charge; interact via strong force; flavors include: up (+2/3), down(-1/3), top(+2/3), bottom(-2/3), charm(+2/3), and strange(-1/3) |

Leptons | have no strong interaction; electron(-1), electron neutrino(0), muon(-1), muon neutrino(0), tauon (-1), tauon neutrino(0) |

Bosons | elementary particles with integer spin; mediate fundamental forces |

photon | electromagnetic force; 0 charge; 1 spin; 0 mass |

W Boson | weak nuclear force; -1 charge; 1 spin |

Z Boson | weak nuclear foce; 0 charge; 1 spin |

Gluon | strong nuclear force; 0 charge; 1 spin |

Higgs Boson | endows particle masses via Higgs Mechanism; 0 charge; 0 spin |

Graviton | gravitational force; 0 charge; 2 spin |

Hadron | strongly interacting composite particles |

Baryons | composite fermions (ordinarty baryons have 3 valence quarks/antiquarks) |

Nucleons | fermionic constituents of atomic nuclei |

Protons | two up quarks, one down quark; +1 charge |

Neutrons | two down quarks, one up quark; 0 charge |

Hyperons | contain strange quarks; heavy and short-lived |

Mesons | composite bosons; ordinary have a quark and an antiquark in addition to bosons |

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | specific pairs of physical properties cannot both be known to arbitrary precision; the better you know one, the worse you know the other |

Schrodinger Equation | describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes over time |

Pauli Exclusion Principle | no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state |

Dirac Equation | Matrix form of the Schrodinger Equation |

Stefan-Boltzmann Law | energy radiated per unit surface area of black bodies proportional to fourth power of temperature |

Planck's Law | describes the spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature T |

Hubble's Law | velocity at which galaxies recede from the earth proportional to distance |

Special Relativity | physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference |

Time Dilation | variance of time observation between observers depending on the relative speeds of the observers' frames of reference |

twin paradox | twin flies in spaceship near light speed and returns to much older twin |

Lorentz Contraction | length measure by one observer smaller than tat from another |

Equivalence of mass and energy | energy content of mass at rest is mc*2 |

Lorentz Transformation | expression of spatial dimensions in those of a given reference frame based on the speed of that frame; involves Lorentz factor |

General Relativity | geometric theory of gravitation; describes gravity as a geometric property of spacetime |

Created by:
LeviD