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# Physics - Quiz Bowl

### quiz bowl physics data

TermDefinition
Kinematics branch of mechanics that deals with pure motion
Kinetics the branch of mechanics that deals with the actions of forces in producing or changing the motion of masses
Statics branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium
Dynamics deals with the motion and equilibrium of systems under the actions of forces
Three/Four Fundamental Forces Gravity, Strong Nuclear, Electroweak (Weak Nuclear and Electromagnetic)
Moment of Inertia Resistance to rotational motion equal to the products of the mass and the square of the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation of each particle in a body
Torque product of force and the lever arm; produces or tends to produce torsion or rotation
Hooke's Law Elastic force of a spring or similar object (F=-kx)
Coulomb's Law force between two charged particles are inversely squared
Maxwell's Equations Gauss's Laws, Faraday's Law, and Ampere's Law with Maxwell's correction
Gauss's Law relates electric charge to electric field
Gauss's Law for magnetism magnetic monopoles do not exist
Faraday's Law Induced EMF in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit
Ampere's Law relates electric current to magnetic field produced; related to Biot-Savart Law
Lorentz Force force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields
Kirchoff's Current Law total current into a point on a circuit equals total current out
Kirchoff's Voltage Law total potential difference around a loop equals zero
Lens'z Law "induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose.. change causing it"; nature abhors changes in flux
Joule's First Law power produced (dissipated as heat) in a resistor
Aerodynamics study of the flow of gases
Archimedes' Principle bouyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
Pascal's Law pressure change is conveyed uniformly throughout a fluid
Bernoulli's Principle relates kinetic and potential energies to pressure in fluid flows
Navier-Stokes Equations PDEs that determine motion of particles in a fluid (most of CFD)
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation; coherent beam of light
Critical Angle smallest angle for total internal refraction
Fluorescence emission of radiation by an object as a result of absorption of other radiation
Photon single unit of EM radiation; particle/wave duality
Doppler Effect apparent shift in frequency from moving source
Fermat's Principle between any two points, light takes the path that requires the least time
Snell's Law (of Refraction) index of refraction *sin of angle = constant
Huygens(-Fresnel) Principle wave fronts serve as sources of new wavelets (diffraction, etc.)
Young's Double Slit proved wave nature of light by demonstrating diffraction
Planck Relation relates frequency and energy by namesake constant (E=hv)
Enthalpy (H) internal energy plus pressure times volume
Entropy (S) a measure of disorder based on the number of equivalent micro states
Helmholtz Free Energy useful work attainable from a closed system
Gibbs Free Energy useful work attainable from an isothermal, isobaric system
Carnot Engine heat engine with cycle of isothermal expansion, isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expanstion, isothermal compression, and isentropic compression
Fusion/Melting transition from solid to liquid phase
Freezing transition from liquid to solid phase (opposite of melting)
Sublimation transition directly from solid to gas phase
Deposition transition directly from gas to solid phase (opposite of sublimation)
Gasization transition from liquid to gas phase
Boiling gasization originating with sub-surface bubbles
Kelvin (SI Unit) starts at absolute zero; increments equal to 1 C
Celsius (Centigrade) defines with 0C as freezing point of water and 100C as boiling point
Fahrenheit water freezes at 32F, boils at 212F; zero is temp of ammonium chloride and ice
Rankine starts at absolute zero; increments equal to 1F
Isobaric constant pressure
Isothermal constant temperature
Isochoric constant volume
0th Law of Thermodynamics transitive property of thermal equilibrium
1st Law of Thermodynamics change in internal energy is sum of heat into the system and work done by the system
2nd Law of Thermodynamics Total entropy of any isolated system tends to increase over time
3rd Law of Thermodynamics processes cease and entropy goes to zero at absolute zero
Carnot's Theorem/Rule no engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a comparable Carnot Engine
Joule's Second Law internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on temperature
Fermions elementary particles with half-integer spin (1/2 for all known fermions)
Quarks Type of fermion that are components of hadrons; only known fractional charge; interact via strong force; flavors include: up (+2/3), down(-1/3), top(+2/3), bottom(-2/3), charm(+2/3), and strange(-1/3)
Leptons have no strong interaction; electron(-1), electron neutrino(0), muon(-1), muon neutrino(0), tauon (-1), tauon neutrino(0)
Bosons elementary particles with integer spin; mediate fundamental forces
photon electromagnetic force; 0 charge; 1 spin; 0 mass
W Boson weak nuclear force; -1 charge; 1 spin
Z Boson weak nuclear foce; 0 charge; 1 spin
Gluon strong nuclear force; 0 charge; 1 spin
Higgs Boson endows particle masses via Higgs Mechanism; 0 charge; 0 spin
Graviton gravitational force; 0 charge; 2 spin
Baryons composite fermions (ordinarty baryons have 3 valence quarks/antiquarks)
Nucleons fermionic constituents of atomic nuclei
Protons two up quarks, one down quark; +1 charge
Neutrons two down quarks, one up quark; 0 charge
Hyperons contain strange quarks; heavy and short-lived
Mesons composite bosons; ordinary have a quark and an antiquark in addition to bosons
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle specific pairs of physical properties cannot both be known to arbitrary precision; the better you know one, the worse you know the other
Schrodinger Equation describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes over time
Pauli Exclusion Principle no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state
Dirac Equation Matrix form of the Schrodinger Equation
Stefan-Boltzmann Law energy radiated per unit surface area of black bodies proportional to fourth power of temperature
Planck's Law describes the spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature T
Hubble's Law velocity at which galaxies recede from the earth proportional to distance
Special Relativity physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference
Time Dilation variance of time observation between observers depending on the relative speeds of the observers' frames of reference
twin paradox twin flies in spaceship near light speed and returns to much older twin
Lorentz Contraction length measure by one observer smaller than tat from another
Equivalence of mass and energy energy content of mass at rest is mc*2
Lorentz Transformation expression of spatial dimensions in those of a given reference frame based on the speed of that frame; involves Lorentz factor
General Relativity geometric theory of gravitation; describes gravity as a geometric property of spacetime
Created by: LeviD

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