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animals ( general)

3 general words that describe all animals multicellular, eukaryotic , heterotrophs ( they are ingestive heterotrophs)
What animals are believed to evolved from ( some cells of sponges are very similar to these) colonial protists
2 places where animals digest food in specific cells ( this happens in sponges) or in body cavities ( such as gastrovascular cavity) or organs ( stomachs and intestines)
95-99 % of animals are ______ ( they don't have ? but many have ?) invertebrates, ( backbones, exoskeletons)
Discuss an exoskeleton .... What, What does it provide for the animal, What are two ways it protects, and what does it prevent) exoskeletons are hard or tough outer coverings on animals. they provide a supportive framework for the animal... they protect soft body tissues and protect from predators, they prevent water loss
Does an exoskeleton grow with the animal as it grows? No, the exoskeleton doesn't grow with the animal. it must be shed ( this is called molting)... When they shed the old exoskeleton a new exoskeleton grows.
What is an endoskeleton... Which animals have an endoskeleton? it is an internal skeleton... found in vertebrates and invertebrates called echinoderms ( sea stars and sea urchins are examples)
What is an advantage of an endoskeleton and give 3 functions endoskeleton's grow with the animal.. functions of the endoskeleton 1. protects internal organs, 2. provides support for body and 3. it provides an internal brace for muscles to pull against... ( basically same functions as exokeleton)
What are endoskeletons made of in some fish ( sharks, rays), sea stars and sea urchins ( echinoderms), other fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals ... sharks, rays- cartilage ... sea stars and sea urchins ( calcium carbonate) ... other fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals- bones
What are vertebrates animals that have an endoskeleton and a backbone ( or spinal column) spinal column is not same as spinal cord..... vertebrates is a subphylum of chordate that includes animals with backbones these are fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
What is a good quote to remember about chordates and vertebrates... all vertebraes are chordates... but not all chordates are vertebrates... ( there are invertebrate chordates --- 2 small groups)
Will we see all animals move? explain this and use proper terms or words NO,,, most animals have a body form that moves at some stage of development .. SOME ANIMALS ARE STATIONARY AS ADULTS... THIS IS CALLED SESSILE...
What type of reproduction USUALLY occurs in animals... review this type of reproduction sexual... when a egg and sperm ( made by meiosis) unite during fertilization to make offspring that have some variation
What word describes an animal that produces both egg and sperm in the same animal body HERMAPHRODITE ... to get variation two individuals unite and exchange the sperm and eggs between both of them
What is required for external fertilization an aquatic environment
Describe the external fertilization in fish... What is true about the number of eggs that are produced with external fertilization the female fish lays eggs in water and the male sheds sperm over the eggs... .. since they do external fertilization , they will need to lay a larger number of eggs to be sure some get fertilized and survive
Can animals have asexual reproduction... Explain Yes... a single parent will make a genetically identical offspring.. some types are budding, fragmentation, and regeneration
Explain a planaria's asexual reproduction called regeneration body parts that are missing can be regrown... if you cut the worm in half... the part with the head can grow a new posterior end and the posterior end grows an anterior end... you can also split them between the eyes and get two headed planaria
What are the 3 types of symmetry... arrangements of body structures that form the animals "balance" and enable the to move a certain way asymmetry, radial symmetry, and bilateral symmetry
which type of symmetry has no balance in the animal... They are irregular in shape asymmetry "a" means without or not
what type of symmetry allows animals to detect and capture prey moving in from any direction radial
what is the definition of radial symmetry the animal can be divided into roughly equal halves when you divide it along any plane as long as it goes through the central axis... ( think about cutting a pie or pizza into wedge slices through the center point
which type of symmetry is involved when an animal moves through the environment with the anterior end first ( head end encounters food and other stimuli) bilateral
what is the definition of bilateral symmetry the animal can be divided into roughly mirror image halves along ONE PLANE .... you would have to cut a human and other bilateral symmetrical animals between the eyes
give an example on an animal with asymmetry sponges ( the phylum porifera)
name two animal phyla with radial symmetry cnidarians and echinoderms ( echinoderms had radial adults)
give examples of animal phyla with bilateral symmetry first with bilateral symmetry flatworms ( platyhelminthes)... others are nematode(roundworm), mollusk, annelids ( segmented worms), arthropods, chordates ... also the larva of echinoderms
Describe the two types of "guts" found in bilateral animals saclike ( only one opening.. mouth takes in food and also where wastes exit) tube-like ( has mouth and anus, complete digestive system that digest, absorbs, stores and disposes undigested food)
What are advantages of segmentation 1. animals with segments can survive damage to one segment ( others can do same functions) 2. movement is more effective ( more flexible)
Name 3 phyla with segmentation annelids, arthropods, and chordates
animals put together from a succession of similar parts can be described as segmented
Which animal phylum has cells that work together no tissues.. the simplest animal Porifera
Which animal phylum has the first true tissues with two tissue layers Cnidarian
which animal phylum is the first to be bilateral Platyhelminthes or flatworm
How many tissue layers are present in bilateral animals 3
Which two animal phyla are thin or pretty tiny and move materials ( carbon dioxide, oxygen, nutrients ) by diffusion - have no circulatory or respiratory system ( remember diffusion is moving materials from a high concentration to a low concentration) flatworms and roundworms
What are three types of body cavities in animals and give an example of each 1. no body cavity ( solid body) acoelomate.... flatworm 2. partial body cavity... roundworm 3. true body cavity.. coelomate ( mollusk, annelid, arthropod, echinoderm, chordate
what is the advantage of a body cavity or coelom the animals can be larger, more active, and develop specialized organs and systems
what two groups of organisms are closely related due to similar embryo development 1. the mollusks and annelids 2. the echinoderms and chordates
who was the first with segmentation the annelids or segmented worms
what is the order of animal evolution from simple to complex porifera, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, mollusk, segmented worms, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates
what is the fancy name for sponges, flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms, porifera, platyhelminthes, nematode, annelid
which group is stuck into the evolution of worms...all the worms are not in order... what is the order flatworms, roundworms, MOLLUSK, segmented worms
what development happened in arthropods : 2 things that are important exoskeleton and jointed appendages, ( note appendages are legs, antennae etc)
which animal is closely related to chordates because of the embryo development... they have a bilateral larva but become radial as an adult echinoderm
are all chordates vertebrates no there are a few invertebrate chordates
what is special about the classification of vertebrates they are a subphylum of chordates that includes animals with backbones
give one example of a cnidarian jellyfish
give one example of a platyhelminthes planaria
give one example of a nematode ascaris
give one example of a mollusk snail
give one example of an annelid an earthworm
give one example of an arthropod insects
give one example of an echinoderm starfish or sea star
give two examples of chordates bird and human
What is the largest animal phylum and the largest class within that phylum Arthropod, insect
What are the classes of arthropods insect, crustacean, arachnids, centipede, millipede, and horseshoe crab
what are the classes of chordates jawless fish, cartilage fish, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
Created by: shemehl