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APCSP FExam Rev

TermDefinition
Overflow (error that results when the number of bits is not enough to hold the number, like a car’s odometer “rolling over”),
Round-off (error that results when the number of bits is not enough to represent the actual number, like 3 digits to represent π as 3.14)
Lossy (Compressing data in a way that throws some data away and makes it almost impossible to recover the original, great compression, like JPEG images)
Lossless (Compressing data in a way that preserves all data away and allows full recovery of the original, good compression -- usually not as good as lossy, like PNG images)
Metadata (data about data, like a camera storing the location, aperture, shutter speed, etc. for a digital photo)
Sequencing code flows line by line, one after another, like a recipe
Iteration (using a looping control structure, like while, for, foreach, repeat, repeat-until, etc
Selection a boolean condition to determine which of two algorithmic paths are taken, aka if-then
Reasonable time polynomial in the number of steps an algorithm takes in the worst case based on the input size
Not reasonable time Usually exponential in the number of steps, like doubling every time your input grows by one
Heuristic using a “rule” to guide an algorithm, like always walking toward the north star if you were stuck in a forest
Undecidable A problem that is so difficult, we can’t ever create an algorithm that would be able to answer yes or no for all inputs. like determining if a user’s program run on some input would always stop and not run forever)
Linear vs. Binary search Going one by one vs starting in the middle and going left/right like looking for a word in the dictionary -- binary search requires the list to be sorted in order
API's Application Programming Interface, how you define libraries and call them
Network A computer network is a group of two or more computers that are linked together.
World Wide Web An Internet application that is based on the HTTP protocol
Client computer or software application that requests services from a server located on the internet -- e.g., a Web browser is an example of a client.
SMTP/POP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP) are sets of rules that govern the email servcies.
URL WWW identier that uniquely identifies a resource on the WWW
Protocol A protocol is a system of rules that govern the behavior of some system.
Modem a device that connects a computer to an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Ethernet An ethernet is a network that uses wires to connect computers.
Host An Internet host computer is a computer that's connected directly to the Internet -- often a computer that provides certain services or resources.
LAN network that connects computers within a school or home.
WAN network that connects devices over a broad geographic region -- e.g., a telephone network.
Server a computer connected to the Internet that provides some kind of service -- e.g., Google's Gmail service.
HTTP The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the set of rules that governs the WWW application.
HTML is a language for formatting Web pages.
Router a device that transmits data between two different networks.
Internet Service Provider a company that provides customers with Internet access.
Wifi network uses radio waves to connect devices (computers, smart phones, printers).
host computer is a computer that's connected directly to the Internet -- often a computer that provides certain services or resources.
router a device that transmits data between two different networks.
IP Address a unique string of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.
packet collection of data used by the TCP/IP protocol to transmit data across the Internet. Each packet contains routing data as well as the content of the message.
packet switching method by which information is transmitted through the Internet. Information is broken into packets and each packet is routed independently from source to destination.
abstraction layers The Internet is organized into the link layer (Ethernet protocol), the Internet layer (IP), transport layer (TCP), and application layer (HTTP).
cipher a system for creating secret messages
cryptography 'secret writing'. The art and science of writing secret messages.
encryption the process of using a secret key to convert plaintext into ciphertext.
plaintext an unreadable, secret message.
ciphertext an unreadable, secret message.
decryption the process of using a secret key to convert ciphertext into plaintext.
encryption key a piece of secret data used in by encryption and decryption algorithms
Created by: mgarda