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NSM

Training

QuestionAnswer
PTI: personal training industry clients of the past were better prepared for activity in the gym as a result of an enviroment that required more daily activity.
rate of force production how quickly a muscle can generate force
Stabilization ability of the body stabilizing muscles to provide support for joints as well as maintain posture/balance during movement
Phases of training smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within the three building blocks of training
Deconditioned a state of lost physical fitness
Superset set of two exercises performed back to back without any rest between them
prime mover muscle act as the main source of motive movement
Proprioception Cumulative neural input to the central nerve. system from mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movement
Neuromuscular efficiency Ability of the body's nerves to effectively sends messages to the body's muscles.
Phase 2: strength endurance enhance stabilization strength and endurance while increasing prime mover strength.
Phase 3: Hypertrophy designed for individuals who have the goal of maximal muscle hypertrophy
Phase 4: Maximal Strength works toward the goal of increasing maximal prime mover strength
Phase 5: Power enhances prime mover strength while also improving the rate of force production( how quickly a muscle generate strength)
Unstable enviroment(but controlled) where exercises are performed -causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mech proprioceptively enriched enviromnet
most injuries occur during what contractions most injuries occur during Eccentric and Isometric unable to decelerate and stabilize
what are the 3 type of contractions Concentric -lifting the load - Eccentric-lowering the load - Isometric -for stabilization
What plane does most injuries occur Transverse Plane
which of the 3 planes is most used Sagittal plane -performed in Forward (anterior) or Backward (posterior)
What are the 3 planes of motion, Sagittal plane Frontal plane Tranverse Plane
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Cranial and spinal nerves that spead throughout the body/ serve to relay information/from bodily organs to the brain/from the brain to bodily organs
Sensory (afferent) Neurons Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the effectors sites to the brain/spinal cord
Golgi tendon organs (GTO) Organs sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of change
Motor Function neuromuscular response to sensory information
Kinetic Chain (KC) Combination/interrelation of the /nervous/ skeletal/ muscular systems
Neuron functional unit of the nervous system
Nervous System (NS) large groups of cells that from nerves/which provide a communication network within the body
Sensory Function ability of the nervous system to sense change in internal/or external environments
Interneuron Neurons /transmit impulses from one neuron to another
Central Nervous System (CNS) consist /brain/spinal cord/ serves mainly to interpret information
Integrative Function ability (nervous system) analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making/produces appropriate response
Motor (efferent) Neurons Neurons /transmit nerve impulses from the brain to spinal cord to the effectors sites
Mechanoreceptors Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in the bodily tissues
Joint Receptors receptors sensitive to pressure
Muscle Spindles Fibers sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
TENDONS attach muscles to bone/provides anchor from which muscle exert force/and control bones joints
MUSCLE tissue consisting of long cells that contract/when simulated tp produce motion
Neurotransmitter chemical messengers that transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
Muscular System series of muscle that the nervous system commands to move the skeletal system
Sarcomere functional unit of the muscle that produces muscular contraction -(consist of repeating actions of ACTIN and MYOSIN)
Neural Activation the contraction of muscle generated by the communication between the nervous system and muscular system
JOINTS movable places where two or more bones meet
Appendicular Skeleton portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities
PROCESS projection protruding from the bones where muscles
Tendons is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone[1] and is capable of withstanding tension
Skeleton System the body's frame/ comprised of bones and joints
Axial Skeleton portions of the skeletal system/consist of the skull
The axial skeleton and the Appendicular skeleton Together form the complete skeleton
Arthrokinematics movement of joints
Synovial joints a joint that permits more or less free motion/surrounded by an auricular (joint) capsule
BONES is a rigid connective organ that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates/(connective tissue-creates skeletal framework)
DEPRESSION flat/indented portion of the bone/ can be a muscle attachment site
Nonsynovial Joints joints that do not have cavity
Type II muscle fibers types capillaries/mitochondria/myoglobin/produce more force/quick to fatigue/short term contraction (force and power)
TYPE I MUSCLE FIBER TYPES smaller in size/produce less force/slow to fatigue/long term contraction
HEART muscular pump that rhythmically contracts to push blood throughout the body
BLOOD acts a medium to deliver and collect essential products to and from the tissues of the body
CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM system compromised of the cardiovascular /respiratory system(s)
Blood Vessel hollow tube allows blood to be transported to and from the heart
CAPILLARIES smallest blood vessel /where oxygen/nutrients/hormones/and waste products are exchanges between tissues
Veins Vessels that transport blood back to the heart
Cardiovascular System comprised of the heart/blood it pumps/blood vessels that transport the blood from the heart to the issues of the body
Arteries Vessels that transport blood away from the heart
HEART comprised of four chambers /delineated into interdependent pumps on either side
Self Myofascial release/followed by dynamic stretching warm for power training( client)
Ventricles chambers located inferiorly on either side of the heart/chamber which collects blood from an atrium
70-80 beats a minute heart rate of the the typical person (approx.)
Expiration exhalation of air is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes
Bioenergetics how chemical energy is converted in mechanical
Aerobic occurs in the presence of oxygen
adenosine triphosphate cellular structure/serves as storage/transfer unit within the cells of the body for energy
Respiratory System system/ including the lungs/with the nervous/circulatory supply/collects oxygen from external environment and transport it to the bloodstream
Inspiration (Inhalation of air) is the movement of air from the external environment
Anaerobic action not dependent on oxygen for proper execution -is a technical word which literally means without air
Length-Tension Relationship length at which muscle can produce the greatest force
Isometric muscle action where there is no appreciable change in the muscle length
Force-Couple Synergistic action of muscles to produce movement around a joint
Concentric - shortening of the muscle(contract) when a muscle exerts more force than is being placed on it
Sensor motor Integration ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret info//select/execute the proper motor response
Motor Control study of how kinetic chain creates movements
Eccentric -lengthening of a muscle when a muscle exerts less force than is being placed upon it
Knowledge Of Performance provides information about the quality of movement during an exercise
Biomechanics the study of how internal/external forces affect the way the body moves
Sagittal Plane bisects the body to create left/right halves (flexion/extension)
Frontal Plane bisects the body to create front/back halves (abduction/adduction)/lateral flexion of the spine/eversion/inversion of the foot and ankle complex
Transverse Plane bisects the body to create upper/ lower halves (internal/external rotation)/right/left rotation of the head and trunk/radioulnar pronation and supination
Agonists muscle most responsible for a particular movement
Synergist assist agonists during a movement
Stabilizers muscles that support the body while others muscle are performing a movement
Antagonists muscles that oppose agonists
Eccentric moving in the same direction as the resistance/(decelerates/reduces force)
Isometric no visible movement with or against resistance/(Dynamically stabilizes force)
Concentric moving in the opposite directions of the resistance/(Accelerates/produces force)
Step 4_Persistence (success) The process of working hard toward goal(s)/ rebounding from setback
Step 3_Belief (success) One of the most Powerful predictors of change/success
Step_5 Learning(success) Involved self-monitoring
Step 1_Vision(success) Being certain about what one wants from life
Step_2 Strategy(success) Properly setting personals goals through process of strategy refinement
GLYCOLSIS Primary breakdown of carbohydrates to rapidly produce ATP
Speed The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible
Agility The ability to accelerate
Quickness The ability to react to stimulus and change the motion of the body in all planes of motion
Integrated performance paradigm To move with precision
Reactive training Exercises that utilize quick
Rate of force production Ability of the muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
Dynamic joint stabilization Ability of the kinetic chain to stabilize a joint during movement
Multisensory Condition Training environment that provides heightened stimulation to proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors
Controlled instability Training environment that is unstable as can safely be controlled by an individual?
Limit of Ability The distance outside of an individual's base of support that he/she can go without losing control o there center of gravity
Core The lumbo -pelvic-hip complex
Intramuscular Coordination Ability of the neuromuscular system to allow optimal level of motor unit recruitment and synchronization within a muscle
Internal Coordination Ability of the neuromuscular system to allow muscles to work together with proper activation and timing between them
Drawing in maneuver Pulling the region just below the navel toward the spine
General Adaptation Syndrome General pattern of adaptation brought forth by stresses place upon the kinetic chain
Alarm Reaction The initial reaction to a stressor that allows for protective processes within the body
Resistance Development A stage where the kinetic chain increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
Exhaustion Stress that is intolerable to the client and that will produce breakdown or injury
Per iodization Division of a training program into the smaller
Principle of Specificity Principle that states the body will specifically adapt to the type of demand placed upon it
Mechanical Specification Refers to the weight and movements placed ont he body
Neuromuscular Specificity Refers to the speed of concentration and exercise selection
Metabolic Specificity Refers to the energy demand placed upon the body
Strength The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome external force
Obesity Fastest growing health problem in the United States
Diabetes Metabolic disorder in which the body’s ability to produce insulin or to utilize glucose is altered
Hypertension Blood Pressure of 140/90 or greater
Osteopenia The precursor to osteoporosis and is indicated by lowered bone mass
Osteoporosis Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between bones
Arthritis Inflammatory condition that mainly affects the joints
Osteoarthritis Degeneration of cartilage in joints
Rheumatoid arthritis Degenerative joint disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues
Cancer Any various types of malignant neoplasm
Restrictive Lung Disease Condition where the ability to expand the lungs is decreased
Obstructive Lung Disease Condition where the lung tissue is normal
Intermittent Claudication limping
Peripheral arterial disease narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremity
Nutrition The sum of processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilizes food substances
Protein Made up of amino acids utilized to assist in energy production
Essential Amino Acids Amino acids the body is unable to manufacture
nonessential Amino Acids Amino Acids the body is able to manufacture
Biological Value A measure of protein quality or how well it satisfies the body's essential amino acids
Complete Protein A food source that supplies all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios
Incomplete Protein A food source that is low or lacking in one or more essential amino acids
Gluconeogenesis Amino acids are utilized to assist in energy production
Recommended Dietary Allowance The average daily intake that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all healthy individuals
Adequate Intake recommended average daily nutrient intake level based/ on estimates of nutrients intake that are adequate for group(s) of healthy people
Estimated Average Requirement the requirements of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group
Dietary Reference Intakes Provides guidelines for what constitutes an adequate intake of nutrition
Dietary Supplement A substance that completes or makes an addition to daily intake
PAR – Q Questionnaire that is designed to help qualify clients for activity levels and identity those who may need medical attention
Systolic pressure Reflects the pressure produced by the heart as it pumps blood to the body
Structural Efficiency Alignment of the musculoskeletal system that allows a center of gravity to be maintained over a base of support
Posture Alignment and the function on the kinetic chain at any given moment
Objective Information Measureable data that can be utilized to denote improvements in the client
Integrated Fitness Assessment a three-dementional representation of the client
Subjective Information Feedback from the client to the fitness professional regarding personal history
Postural Equilibrium the ability to efficiently maintain balance
Diastolic pressure Signifies the minimum pressure within the arteries though a full cardiac cycle
Functional Efficiency Ability of the neuromuscular system to monitor/manipulate movement using the least amount of energy/creating the least amount of stress on the kinetic chain
Flexibility Normal soft- tissue extensibility that allows full range of motion of a joint has optimum control
Muscle Imbalance Alterations of lengths of muscles surrounding a joint
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition When a tight psoas decreases the neural drive to the gluteus maximums this is an example of
Synergistic Dominance The body's substitution system when there is a weak or inhibited prime mover
Muscle Spindle Sensory organ of muscle sensitive to length and rate of change of length
Autogenetic Inhibition Process that substitutes the Golgi Tendon Organ and produces an inhibitory effect on the muscle spindle
Golgi Tendon Organ Sensory organ sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of change of tension
Specific Warm up Consists of movement that more closely mimics those of the actual activity
EPOC State where the body's metabolism is elevated following exercise
Frequency The number of training sessions for a given time period
Anaerobic Threshold Point when the body can no longer produce enough energy for the muscles with normal oxygen intake
Cool – Down Provides body with a smooth transition back to a steady state
Intensity Level of demand the activity places on the body
Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training Training that involves and places stress on the cardiorespiratory system
Interval training Where intensities are varied throughout the workout
Stage Training Three stage programming system that uses different heart training zones
General warm –up Preparing the body for physical activity by doing movements that are not specific to the activity to be performed
Fiber associated with lower incidence of heart disease
Cumulative injury cycle Poor posture and repetitive movements may create dysfunctions in connective tissue
Transverse What plane divides the body into top and bottom halves and consists of internal and external rotation movements
length-tension relationship The length at which a muscle can provide/produce the greatest amount of force is known as _________
Tensor fascia latae Which of the following muscles is primarily for concentrically accelerating hip flexion and internal rotation
Sprinting An example of Zone 3 cardiorespiratory exercise is ____________
Hamstrings pelvis is rotated anteriorly/the anterior superior iliac spine (front of pelvis) moves downwards and the ischium
Posterior An anatomical location referring to a position on the back of towards the back of the body is known as _________
Almost always a question that asks "who" Example: Who are your role models Which of the following is an example of a "vision" question
35 An example of a severe BMI score is ______
internal balance and stabilization A proprioceptively enriched environment challenges an individual
Concentrically accelerating spinal flexion The rectus abdominus is responsible for ________
Two legs to one leg A proper progression for a client in a balance training program would include
Body fat percentage Bioelectrical impedance and underwater weighing assess which of the following
Core Power A "rotation chest press" is considered what type of exercise
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension Hypertrophy is BEST defined as
The energy demand placed on the body Metabolic specificity refers to
Compound-Set Exercises that emphasize an agonist immediately followed by exercises that fatigue the antagonist are known as
Structures of the skull Which of the following is an example of a nonsynovial joint
Phospholipids All of the following are carbohydrates
Fitness Assessment provides the health and fitness professional with ongoing information to modify and progress a client through an integrated training program
provides the health and fitness professional with ongoing information to modify and progress a client through an integrated training program Amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained from food or some other source are known as ______
Stabilization Improving muscle imbalances
Eccentric resulting in the lengthening of the muslce
Step test Which of the following assessments BEST measures cardiovascular efficiency
Standing pectoral wall stretch squat assessment a client demonstrates arms falling forward. Which of the following stretches would be MOST appropriate
Cell body axon
Sinoatrial (SA) node Which of the following structures is termed the pacemaker for the heart because it initiates the heartbeat
Postural distortion patterns structural integrity of the body has been compromised /disruption in one or more components of the kinetic chain
Synergistic dominance A synergistic muscle substituting for a prime mover during muscle contraction is known as ______
Muscular skeletal
Hypertrophy training Which phase of the optimum performance training model specifically strives for the adaptation of maximal muscle growth
Stabilization core stabilization exercises are performed in which training block of the optimum performance training (OPT) model
Relative flexibility demonstrate poor flexibility (limited muscle extensibility and joint range of motion)
1-3 Phase 1 of the Optimum Performance Training model requires ____ sets for each exercise during the resistance training portion of the workout
Inferior An anatomical location referring to a position below a reference point is known as
Specific adaption to imposed demands The SAID principle stands for
Golgi Tendon Organ Which of the following sensory receptors will cause a muscle to relax when excited
Functional (dynamic) flexibility Integrated multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control
Self Myofascial release followed by dynamic stretching
Force-couple The synergistic action of muscles to produce movement around a joint is known as ______
Challenge the limits of stability What is the main goal of balance training
Type 1 Which of the following muscle fibers are smaller in size and contain a high number of capillaries
4-2-1 What is the appropriate tempo for resistance training exercises when training in phase 1 of the Optimum Performance Training model
Medial An anatomical location referring to a position decribed as being closer to the midline of the body from a reference point is known as _____
Barbell bench press An example of a "chest strength" exercise would be a _____
25 grams What is the daily recommended intake of fiber
Rate of force production The "Power" training block of the OPT model strives to MOST improve
Self-Myofascial release applies gentle force to an adhesion "knot"
Bicep femoris Which of the following muscles concentrically performs knee flexion
High intensity short duration activities
Maximal Strength The maximum force that a muscle can produce in a single
Ipsilateral An anatomical location referring to a position on the same side of the body is known as ________
Stabilization strength
Myofibril Actins and myosin are the primary components of myofilaments that make which of the following
Quadriceps hamstrings
Not breathing and has no pulse CPR is administered to anyone who is
4-6 During the "maximal strength training" phase of the OPT model
Core strength The "reverse crunch" is considered what type of exercise
Multisensory conditions Balance and neuromuscular efficiency are improved through repetitive exposure to a variety of which of the following kinds of conditions
Hamstrings During hip extension
Shark Skill test Which of the following assessments BEST measures lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control
strength followed by power A "power level" client should perform supersets during resistance training in which order according to the OPT model
Starting with a slow steady tempo and gradually increasing the velocity A core-training program for a new client should be progressed by
ATP-CP bioenergetics is limited in its capacity to sustain energy /rely on the minimal storage of adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate within the cells
Muscle spindles sensory receptors are MOST sensitive to change in length of muscle and the rate of that change
Frontal What plane divides the body into front and back halves and consists of abduction and adduction movements
Standing cable row An example of a "back stabilization" exercise would be a
Rate of force production and motor unit recruitment Reactive training helps to improve
Superior An anatomical location referring to a position above a reference point is known as
Sensory (afferent) neurons Which of the following neurons transmit nerve impulses from effectors sites to the brain or spinal cord
Illipsoas Which of the following muscles is considered to be a part of the core
Internal balance and stabilization A proprioceptively enriched environment challenges an individual’s _______
Balance-stabilization A "single-leg balance reach" is considered what type of exercise
85-90 Rest intervals of 60 seconds will allow approximately ____% recovery of ATP of CP
Dynamic stretching neuromuscular control
Hip-flexor complex tight (overactive) thus increasing the clients anterior pelvic tilt during the overhead squat assessment
Dynamic range of motion (find answer) All of the following are appropriate factors for prescribing rest intervals EXCEPT
Glycolysis Which of the following bioenergetics pathways primarily breakdown carbs to rapidly produce ATPs
Transverse What plane divides the body into top and bottom halves and consists of internal and external rotation movements
Latissimus Dorsi Which of the following muscles acts as an antagonist during "overhead press" exercise
ATP-CP bioenergetics pathway is limited in its capacity to sustain energy /rely on the minimal storage of adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate within the cells
Concentrically accelerating dorsiflexion inversion The anterior tibialis is responsible for
Sagittal What plane divides the body into left and right halves
Superior An anatomical location referring to a position above a reference point is known as
Fiber lower incidence of heart disease
Hypertension Beta-blockers are most often used for clients suffering from
Strength The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external force
Bell Corba Assessment a client demonstrates an elevated shoulder posture. Which of the following strengthening exercises would
Active-isolated stretching The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion is known as
Medial Referring to a position described as being closer to the midline of the body from a reference point is known as
Sarcomere produces muscular contractions and consists of repeating sections of acting and myosin is known as
70-80 beats per minute The typical heart rate for an adult is between
the energy demand placed on the body Metabolic specifically refers to
Core Power A rotation chest pass is considered what type of exercise
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tensions Hypertrophy
Considered the chief source of energy for all bodily functions and muscular exertion Carbohydrates
Maximal strength training Performance Training model uses the longest rest periods to maximize ATP replenishment necessary for lifting heavy loads
Root cause analysis A method of asking questions on a step-by-step basis to discover the initial cause of a fault is known as
Stability In which category does the specific adaptation of muscular endurance fall
False Connective tissues (such as ligaments and tendons) adapt just as quickly as muscles
multiple-set ______ Training is promoted as being more beneficial for strength and hypertrophy gains in advanced clients
horizontal ______ loading refers to performing all sets of an exercise or body moving on to the next exercise or body part
Dynamic postural observations should relate to movements such as squatting
False Strength endurance allows the body to use lower levels of force with lower repetitions and fewer sets
hip flexors If a client spends a lot of time sitting at his or her job, it can lead to tightness in the
Biceps Triceps Iliac Crest subscapular Which four sites of the body are used to determine a sum for the durnin-womersley formula
Zone 1 What heart rate zone should a 50 year old male client be in if he achieved a recovery pulse of 90 after performing the 3 minute step test?
0.10 seconds When performing the Shark skill test
The OPT model has been extremely successful in helping all population to reduce body fat,increase lean muscle mass and strentgh,improve performances,and improve overall health? true
A typical client with the goal of improving general performances should specifically be cycled through which phases? Phases 1,2, & 5
Beginning clients should perform lower repetition schemes? false
how long does it take for the body to replenish 100% of it's ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) supplies? 3 minutes
Training volume is always inversaely related intensity. true
What are the components of the cadiovascalur system? heart,blood and blood vessels
Which system(s) of the bioenergetic continuum is (are) aerobic? oxidative
ATP-CP system Which pathway of the bioenergetic continuum would most likelyy be used during heavy weight training?
The ____ atruim gathers deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the entire body ,whereas the ____ atruim gathers reoxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs? right atrium (dex)/ left atrium (reox)
Abduction and adduction occur in which plane of motion? frontal plane
eccentric lowering a barbell down toward the chest during a bench press is an example of which kind of muscle contraction?
Which is considered internal feedback used by the body to monitor movement? -lentgh-tension relationship-force-couple relationship-arthrokinematics
Sensorimotor integration requires proprioception? True
A heart rate monitor is an example of which type of feedback? external
30% approximately what percentage of adults are estimated to be obese
A porprioceptively enriched envornment is one that challenges the internal balance and stabilization mechanisms of the body true
Name the 3 building blocks of training stabilization,strength,and power
In which building block does the phase of hypertrophy training belong strentgh
Which phase of training enhances prime mover strentgh and improves the rate of force production concurrently Phase 5 Power Training
What are some mechanoreceptors an their functions? Golgi tendon organs-sense tension and rate of tensionmuscle spindles - sense length and rate of length change, causing contractionjoint receptors - sense pressure, acceleration, and deceleration at a joint.
List synovial joint with an example gliding joint -Carpals of the handhinge joint -Elbowsaddle joint -Carp metacarpal joint of the thumbball and socket joint -shoulder
Match up the muscle with it's appropriate action during hip extension Gluteus maximus -Agonisthamstrings -Synergisttransversus abdominis -Stabilizerpsoas - Antagonist
Which kind of muscle fibers are 'fast twitch' type 2
All movement is directly dictated by the nervous system? true
What kind of reactive exercises would you choose for a client in phase 2. of the OPT model stabilization
Reactive training aims genertate ______ force ouput in a ___ amount of time maximal - minimal
match the exercises to either stabilization,stretgh or power levels of training. stabilization -Box jump-up with stabilization strentgh -power step ups power -Ice skater power - Proprioceptive plyometrics
Circle which safety guidline(s) must be taken into consideration when designing a reactive traning program -progressive-start in unustable environments
One adaptive benifit of cardiorespatory exercise is that it ____ resting heart rate and inc/dec exercising heart rate decreases
it has been shown that performing 3 10 minute bouts of exercise is just as effective as 1 30 min continueous bout of the same exercise true
The law of thermodynamics state that the body fat reduction can only take place when there is more -------- being burned then consumed? calories
true statements about circuit weigh training? -It produces greater levels of EPOC-It produuces near indentical caloric expndatre for the same given time span,when compared to walking at a fast pace.
Clients with an interior pelvic tilt(low back arches) should use bicycles and steppers to place the hips into flexion false
The kinetic chain is made up of Nervous System,Muscular System,Skelatal System
What is the process in which the body initiates the repair of dyssfunction with in the connective tissue cumulative injury cycle
Active flexibilty uses the principle of Reciprocal Inhibition
Which types of stretching stimlutates the Golgi tendon organ and produces auotgenic inhibition static stretching,self myofoscial release
A latissiums dorsi stretch is a good static stretch for which movemnet comoensation during an overhead squat assessment arms fall forward
Flexibility Training should be? Progressive,Systematic,Based on Assessment
What are the three phases of Flexibilty training corrective -self myofascial release static (static adductor)Active - self myofascial release active isolate (adductor)-functional -self myofascial release dynamic (side lunge)
What are the two primary adaptation achieved in this period of training muscular endurance and stability
Describe the first adaptation in one sentence? (STABILIZATION) The ability to maintain relativily low levels of force over prolonged periods of time
Describe the second adaptation in one sentence Ability of the kinetic chains stabilization muscle to provide optimal dynamic joint stabilization ,maintaine correct posture
describes the variables to achieve the adaptation in the stabilization level Repititions: High, Volume: low/moderate,Intensity: low/moderate,Exercises: Controlled Unstablelow/moderateExercises: Controlled Unstable
What are the three primary adaptations achieved in this period of training? (STRENGTH) Strength Endurance - Hypertrophy and Maximized Strength -
Describe the first adaptation in one sentence? (Strength Endurance) Ability to repeatdly produce high levels of forced over prolonged periods of time
Enlargement of muscle fibers in response to increase volumes of tension Describe the second adaptation in one sentence? (STRENGTH HYPERTROPHY)
Describe the second adaptation in one sentence? (STRENGTH MAXIMAL) maximum force that a muscle can produce a single voluntary effort regarding of fast load moves
the variables used to achieve the adaptations in the strength level? Repetition: low/moderate, Volume:moderate/high,Intensity:moderate/high,Exercises:stable
Ability of the neoromuscular system to monitor and manipulate movement using the least amount of energy creating the least amount of stress on the kinetic chain Functional Efficiency
Signifies the minimum pressure within the arteries though a full cardiac cycle Diastolic pressure
the ability to efficiently maintain balance Postural Equilibruim
Feedback from the client to the fitness professional regarding personal history Subjective Information
Provides the fitness professional with a three-dementional representation of the client,which enables proper construction of a training program Integrated Fitness Assessment
Measureable data that can be utilized to denote imporvements in the client,as well as the effectiveness of the program Objective Information
Alignment and the function on the kinetic chain at any given moment Structural Effinciency
Reflects the pressure produced by the heart as it pumps blood to the body Systolic pressure
Normal soft- tissue extensibility that allows full range of motion of a joint abd has opitmum control Flexibilty
When a tight psoas decreases the neurel drive to the gulteus maximums, this is an example of Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
example of a function of the psoas when doing a sit up that brings the torso (including the lower back) away from the ground and towards the front of the leg, the hip flexors (including the iliopsoas) will flex the spine upon the pelvis.
The body's subsitution system when there is a weak or inhibited prime mover Synergistic Dominance
is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity intended to erase the body's "oxygen debt EPOC (Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption )
State where the body's metabolism is elevated following exercise? EPOC (Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption )
Process that substitutes the Golgi Tendon Organ and produces an inhibitry effect on the muscle spindle Autogenetic Inhibition
Sensory organ sensitive to changes in muscular tension and rate of change of tension Golgi Tendon Organ
The number of training sessions for a given time period Frequency
Point when the body can no longer produce enough energy for the muscles with normal oxygen intake Anaerobic Threshold
Level of demand the activity places on the body Intensity
Training that involves and places stress on the cardiorespiratory system Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training
Three stage programming system that uses different heart training zones Stage Training
Abiliy of the muscles to exert maximal force outpt in a minimal amount of time Rate of force production
Ability of the kinetic chain to stabilize a joint during movement Dynamic joint stablilization
Multisensory Condition Training environment that provides heightened stimulation to proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors
Controlled instability Training environment that is unstable as can safely be controlled by an individual
Limit of Ability The distance outside of an individual's base of support that he/she can go with out losing control o there center of gravity
Core The lumbo -pelvic-hip complex thoracic and cervical spine
Complete Protein A food source that supplies all of the essential amino acids in appropriate ratios
Incomplete Protein A food source that is low or lacking in one or more essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids Amino acids the body is unable to manufacture
nonessential Amino Acids Amino Acids the body is able to manufacture
Gluconeogenesis Amino acids are utilized to assist in energy production
General Adaptation Syndrome General pattern of adaptation brought forth by stresses place upon the kinetic chain
Exhaustion Stress that is intolerable to the client and that will produce breakdown or injury
Resistance Development A stage where the kinetic chain increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
Alarm Reaction The initial reaction to a stressor that allows for protective processes within the body
Periodization Division of a training program into the smaller progressive stages
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome external force Strength
Refers to the energy demand placed upon the body Metabolic Specificity
Refers to the speed of concentration and exercise slection? Neuromuscular Specificity
Refers to the weight and movements placed ont he body Mechanical Specification
Principle that states the body will specifically adapt to the type of demand placed upon it? - Principle of Specificity Principle of Specificity
smallest blood vessel /where oxygen/nutirnets/hormaones/and waste products are exchanges bewteen tissues CAPILLARIES
The average daily intake that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirment of nearly all healthy individuals Recommended Dietary Allowance
The average daily nutrient intake level that is esitamted to meet the requirments of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group? Estimated Average Requirment
Provides guidlines for what constitutes an adequate intake of nutrition Dietary Reference Intakes
When training the hypertensive client, it is imperative that the fitness professional also monitor ________. ________ or _________ positions can increase tension. Body Position-Supine-Prone
Phase ________ would be appropriate for a population experiencing hypertension. Programs can be performed in a _______ style and/or using the _______ _______ _______ training system. Phase 1 -circuit-Peripheral Heart Action
A principal observation in Type I osteoporosis is a deficit in _______. Estrogen
4. Osteoporosis mainly affects the neck of the _______ and _______, which are structures considered part of the core. Femur-Vertabrae
5. One of the most important risk factors that influences osteoporosis is ________. This is the highest amount of ________ a person is able to achieve during his/her lifetime. Peak Bone Mass - Bone Mass
6. Guidelines for individuals with osteoporosis include Phases ________ and ________ of the OPT model Phase 1 and Pahse 2
7. With regard to pregnant clientele, those engaged in an exercise program prior to pregnancy may continue with ________ levels of exercise until the ________ trimester Moderate -Third Trimaster
8. As the pregnant client progresses to more advanced stages of pregnancy or after ________ week(s), performing excercises in a prone or supine position is not advised. 12 Weeks
By adjusting the rest interval ________ can be regained according to the goal of the program Energy Supplies
High intensity programs should be at ________ volumes to help ensure a safe training Lower
Optimum training frequency for improvements in strength is ________ times per week. 3-5
Programs that exceed _______ minutes are associated with rapidly declining energy levels 60-90
Upper Intake Level values are set for each nutrientt except for ______ and ______. The ULs for these nutrients are set from supplements or pharmacological sources only? Vitamin K - magnesium
Excess _______ can cause birth defects when woman is taking too much at conception and during early pregnancy Vitamin A
. Excess ______ can result in the calcification of blood vessels and eventually damage the function of kidneys,heart and lungs? Vitamin D
. Excess intake of ______ can interfere with the absorption ot other minerals and can cause gastrointestinal irritation? IRON
Supplementation with vitamin E and _____ can complicate conditions for people on blood thinners? Vitamin K 150
large doses of anti-inflammatory drugs may interfere with _____ function and increase it's requirents? Folic Acid
The storage form of carbohydrates in humans is _____________? Glycogen
The rate at which ingested carbohydrates raise blood sugar and it's accompanying effect on insulin release is referred to as ________? Glycemic Index
Weight gain or loss is related to total __________, not the source of food eaten? Energy Intake
The limiting factor for exercise performance is ______ availibility because maximal ________ utilization cannot occur without it? Carbohydrates and fats
For most moderately active adults, a carbohydrate intake between _________ is recommended? 50%-70%
Got individuals participating in endurance exercise a diet consisting of __________ of total calories froom carbohydrates is recommended? 60%
Of the lipids contained in foods, 95% are _______ and _______? Fats and Oils
____________ fatty acids are implicated as a risk factor for heart disease by raising bad cholesterol levels,whereas _________ fats are assoicated with increases in good cholesterol? Saturated and Unsaturated
. If the goal is fat loss or to enhance overall health , a diet containg __________ of calories from fat is recommended? 10%-30%
An individual should drink approximatley ___________ ounces of water a day? 96
List two attributing factors that a low carbohydrate diet has on weight loss? Low Calorie Intake - Low of fat-free mass
Considerations when designing program for an obese client. explain the affects -Lack of Balance, Proprioceptive training may be better (casues the body to use its internal balance and stabilization)-hypertension (careful to put them in a prone or supine position)Orthepedic stress (engage in weight supported exercises)
Type I diabetes Impairs normal glucose management, blood suger is not optimally delivered to the cells resulting in hperglycemia(high levels of blood sugar) they must inject insulin for what body can not produce
TYPE II diabetes it can produce insulin(ability), but celss are resistant to the insulin, they do not allow insullin to bring adequate amount of sugar to teh cell.
what to avoid when training TYPE II diabetic Weight bearing activities..could casue blisters and micro trauma (could lead to foot infection)
Three side effects high protiens diets Calcium depletionfluid imbalanceheart disease and some types of cancer
Order of sequnce in protein absorption -digestion -Ingested protein enters stomach-hydrochloric acid dismantles peptide bonds-Pepsin put protein in to smaller standsof several amino acids
Order of sequnce in protein absorption -digestion (part II) -some proteins leave the stomach, enter small intestines-singular aminos absorb through the intestinall wall, release into the blood supply to the liver
list 5 contradictions of self myofasical realese 1. hypertensive people -requies laying down2. osteoporosis3. Pregnant (inside of leg) possible premature urine contraction)4.Varicose veins5.intermittent claudication -unless approved
Asking the why question 1. better equipped to customize fitness programs2. better motivate clients (remind them of the goals)3.communicate the benefits of more sessions
Setting Goals?? 1.Properly channel efforts2.boosts motiovation3. enhance performance
handle negativity schedule a negative meeting, informe client not during training sessions
helping client ot persist in a exercise program 1. self reward system2. encourage client to ask for support from family and freinds3. prepare clients for success and setbacks
Rapport -similarity, agreement, or congruity
Empathy -understanding and identifying with thoughts and feelings
Assessment -determining importance or value of something allowing for direct focus into clients. (needs)
Developing -designing a program and having the ability to demonstrate each component of the OPT model relates to clients
3 factors building rapport Trustcommunicationcreate confident, enthusiastice, professional presence
Stabilization Muscular endurance and stabilty low levels of force overprolong period of timeprovide optimal joint stabilization
Strength -strength endurance-hypertrophy-maximal strenght
Power Power the ability to produce greatest power of force in hteshortes amount of timeintensity -low/highexercise -high velocity
Synergistice action of muscles/movement around joints force-couple
muscle smaller in size, high number of capillaries, mitchondria,myoglobin TYPE I muscle fibers
during the maximal strength training phase, which chest exercise is most appropriate Barbell Bench Press
progressing to the strength level of the Opt model would be in what cardio zone Zone Two
Sensory recptors most sensitive to change in the length of muscle and rate of change Muscle Spindles
client possesses a rotated pelvis (arch back), what should he avoid Bicycles
nueromuscular system to contract eccentrically, isometrically, and concetrically (all 3 planes), is best define as Frontal Strength
Part of the nervous system best describes the ability to analyze,interpret responses Integrative
Results in the shortening of hte muscle is what type of contraction Concentric
What are Neurons comprised of Cell Body, Axon,Dendrites
ability, nueromuscular system to allow optimal levels of motor unti recruitment within a muscle intramuscular coordination
reverse crunch is what type of exercise Core Stregnth
considered a total body strength exercise Lunge to two-arm dumbell press
clients knees cabe in during the overhead squat assessmnet what muscles are likely to be tight adductor complex
Name a essential amnio acid Leucine
resistance training can be a hinderance if the factors occur improper assessment and poor flexibility protocol
good neuromuscular control, tissue extensibility,core stabiity,and balance dynamic stretching
single-led roman deadlift, increased adduction and internal rotation at the knee.. Increase external resistance (is not regression)
Bioenergetic pathway, limited in capacity to sustain energy production ATP-CP
exerting force, lenghtenong the muscles, what type of contraction Eccentric
Actin ,Myosin make which of the following Myofibril
Example of a exercise that uses the sagittal plane Biceps Curls
Section of hte heart, gathers reoxygenated blood coming from the lungs Left Atrium
deltoid, rotator cuff,trapezius Synergy (dumbell shoulder press)
Power training block strives to improve rate of force production
total amount of work performed within a specific time period training volume
Poor posture and repetitve movements, create dysfunction in connective tissue cumulative injury cycle
example of an objective assessmnet Physiological Assessments
quadraceps, hamstring, gluteus maximus Synergy (performing Squats)
some props used during reactive training cones
maitaining a state of balance (kinectic chain) Postural Equilibrium
divides body into left and right halves Sagittal plane
concentrically accelerating hip flexion and internal rotation Tensor fascia latae
responsible for sensing distortion of tissue about to stretch, compression,traction, or tension MECHANORECEPTORS
core stabilization exercises are perform in what OPt model Stabilization
neuromuscular system to monitor and manipulate movement during functional task using the least amount of energy fucntional efficiency
rectus adominal responsible for concentric accelerating spinal flexion
Gastrocnemius reponsible for concentric accelerating plantar flexion
Self Myofascial release, followed by dynamic stretching warm up for Power level client
poor flexibilty (limit muscle extensibility and joint range of motion) relative flexibility
alignment and function of all components of the kinectic chain at any given moment POSTURE
Questions taht can be answered YES or NO directive questions
efficient movement requires proper length-tension relationsproper force couple relationsproper arthrokinematics
Actin Myosin myofilaments contained in MYOFIBRIL
high intensity,short duration most ofetn used in ATP-CP
inferior is a location referring to a position below a reference point
rotation chest pass core power
calculate BMI weight(kg)/height(m2)
body uses how many amino acids 20
EPOC -excess postexcercise oxygen consumption bodys metabolism is elevated
stabililty ball dumbell press Phase 1 (stability)
location referring to a positon on the back or toward the back posterior
Proprioceptively enriched enviroment challenges a persons internal balance and stabilization
tight muscles (overactive) feet turned out, during overhead squat soleus
divides body front and back Frontal plane
location referring a position above the knee superior
phase of the OPT superset strength and stabilization exercises strength endurance training
Step Test Measures Cardio efficiency
underactive knees move inward during overhead squat gluteus medius
location referring t oa position on the same side of the body IPSILATERAL
finishing position of back leg for a chest rotation pass triple extension
part of the training phase would you use when supersetting bench press and medicine ball chest pass Power Training
reciprical inhibition to improve soft tissue extensi. dyname stretching
Frontal exercise (example) Ice skater
Core stabilation (example) prone Cobra
Cellular Training higher volume training (3-4 sets at 9-20 reps)
hypertrophy training uses rep tempo and intensity 75-85 %
Stabilization endurance Training improves stability,muscular intensity, and neurmuscular efficiency
two factors children have les tolerance for temperatures higher submaximal oxygen demand and lower sweating rate
length at which a muscle can produce the greatest amount of force length tension relationship
- A muscle that causes movement at a joint in a direction opposite to that of the joint’s agonist (prime mover Antagonist muscle
A muscle that is very effective in causing a certain joint movement. Also called the prime mover. Agonist muscle
Movement about a joint in which bones on either side of the joint are brought closer together, decreasing the angle of the joint. Opposite of extension. FLEXION
Aspect of nearest the midline of the body; pertaining to the center. Opposite of lateral. MEDIAL
The contractions of a muscle resulting in movement. Concentric and eccentric contraction are considered dynamic movements. Dynamic
(ventral): front of the body Anterior
farther away Distal:
Inferior Inferior
Inversion: Moving sole of foot toward medial plane
Tempo Training 2 point  Example: 3/2  Eccentric / Concentric
Created by: daviddd