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Chapter 13-Genetics

heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics the study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring
Mendel considered the father of genetics
dominant trait a genetic factor that blocks another factor
recessive trait a genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor
gene a section on a chromosome that has genetic information for one trait
alleles the different forms of a gene
phenotype how a trait appears or is expressed
genotype the two alleles that control the phenotype of a trait
homozygous when the two alleles of a gene are the same
heterozygous when the two alleles of a gene are different
Punnett Square a model used to predict possible phenotypes and genotypes of offspring
pedigree a chart that shows phenotypes of genetically related family members
incomplete dominance when an offspring's phenotype is a combination of the parents' phenotype (like pink flowers from red and white)
codominance when both alleles can be observed in a phenotype (like roan coat color in cattle, a blend of red and white hairs, inherited from each parent)
multiple alleles genes that have more than two alleles to be selected from , like blood type
polygenic inheritance when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait, like hair and eye color
DNA an organism's genetic material
nucleotide a molecule made of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine the 4 nitrogen bases that make up DNA
replication the process of copying a DNA molecule to make another DNA molecule
junk DNA segments of DNA that do not form genes
RNA a type of nucleic acid that helps to make proteins (3 kinds)
mutation a change in the sequence of a gene
Created by: tduvall