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Chapter 13-Genetics

TermDefinition
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics the study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring
Mendel considered the father of genetics
dominant trait a genetic factor that blocks another factor
recessive trait a genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor
gene a section on a chromosome that has genetic information for one trait
alleles the different forms of a gene
phenotype how a trait appears or is expressed
genotype the two alleles that control the phenotype of a trait
homozygous when the two alleles of a gene are the same
heterozygous when the two alleles of a gene are different
Punnett Square a model used to predict possible phenotypes and genotypes of offspring
pedigree a chart that shows phenotypes of genetically related family members
incomplete dominance when an offspring's phenotype is a combination of the parents' phenotype (like pink flowers from red and white)
codominance when both alleles can be observed in a phenotype (like roan coat color in cattle, a blend of red and white hairs, inherited from each parent)
multiple alleles genes that have more than two alleles to be selected from , like blood type
polygenic inheritance when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait, like hair and eye color
DNA an organism's genetic material
nucleotide a molecule made of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine the 4 nitrogen bases that make up DNA
replication the process of copying a DNA molecule to make another DNA molecule
junk DNA segments of DNA that do not form genes
RNA a type of nucleic acid that helps to make proteins (3 kinds)
mutation a change in the sequence of a gene
Created by: tduvall