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Ecology 3

What kind of species is intraspecific competition dealing with? Between members of the same species
When do we see intraspecific competition? When there are limited resources
Interference: What are direct interactions? Contests over resources
Are direct interactions costly? Why or why not? Yes - Takes time, energy, and can result in injury
How are direct interactions with Cnidarians costly for the cnidarian? They sting. It is costly because once they use one, they can not use it again.
Resource Competition: What basis do indirectly competing organisms go by? First come first serve
Do indirectly competing individuals use resources separately or simultaneously? Simultaneously (Exploitation)
What is exploitation? When one species partakes in consumption of a limited resource and makes it unavailable to another. (One gains energy at the expense of another)
Exploitation deals with how ______ resources are being used _______ _______. Quickly, over time
Which spatial distribution of food is more beneficial when it comes to defense: uniform or clumped? Clumped
Which form of competition occurs when food is uniformly distributed, creating low contest potential? Exploitative Competition
Which form of competition occurs when food has a clumped distribution, creating a high contest potential? Interference Competition
What does the resource matching rule do? Matches the number of competitors to the amount of resources
What is "ideal" for ideal free distribution? All individuals can accurately asses resource amount
What is "free" for ideal free distribution? Animals can move freely from one patch to another
Tests of Ideal Free Distribution (IFD) - Sticklebacks. Explain this experiment. Before feeding, fish distributed randomly. One side, 5 daphnea dropped, the other side 1 daphnea dropped. If 6 fish, 5 go to one side, 1 go to the other side.
What kind of species is interspecific competition dealing with? Between members of different species
For IFD, when is there Nash Equilibrium? When the two are equal
When there is interspecific competion, there is a _____ to both species. Cost
What is the fundamental niche? Biotic and abiotic conditions that predict where a species may live (Where it SHOULD live)
What is the realized niche? Where a species ACTUALLY lives
Which niche, fundamental or realized, do we use with scientific data? Realized niche
What is a classic example of resource partitioning? Warblers in a tree. Can have different species at different heights who each eat a different kind of food. (See also: anoles, algal species)
What does the Competitive Exclusion principle state? two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
When testing for competitive exclusion, what do you do to determine if one species would "win" Remove one of the species. See if the other species takes over the previously owned space.
Joseph Connel: Barnacle example: What happened to Chthalamus when Balanus was removed? Cthalamus spread: It was being confined to the upper rocks because of balanus
In terms of niches, what does competitive exclusion show? The realized niche is smaller than the fundamental niche.
With ecological models, if you hold some variables constant and manipulate other variables, what can you predict? You can predict how species/individuals will be affected (To be able to form a hypothesis)
With ecological models, what can you do after you have formed a hypothesis and collected data? You can compare the actual data to a model to 'fit' it, and then you can make adjustments
Modeling competion: What do you see if: INTRAspecific > INTERspecific? Both species will exist
Modeling competion: What do you see if: INTERspecific > INTRAspecific? One will drive the other to extinction
Explain the Competition Experiment dealing with the rodent granivores Different rodents who ate different things were used. Placed in exclusion plots. They removed different species to see what would happen.
In the Competition Experiment dealing with rodent granivores, what happens to the pocket mice and grasshopper mice if you remove the kangaroo rats? The pocket mice increase, the grasshopper mice stayed constant
In the Competition Experiment dealing with rodent granivores, what was concluded? Kangaroo rats, under normal conditions, outcompete pocket mice. (Similar to the barnacle experiment)
Character displacement: What does niche divergence do? Reduces competition
What is an area of allopatry? Where one species can exist alone
What is an area of sympatry? Where two species exist together
Two species will be more dissimilar in areas of _____ than areas of _____. Sympatry, Allopatry
Why would two species be more dissimilar in areas of sympatry than areas of allopatry? Helps to avoid and minimize competion
What is a classic example of character displacement? Darwin's Finches. (Result of foraging competition)
What kind of competition is a result of the character displacement with Rhinoceros Beetles? Sexual competition
In areas of allopatry, what do two different species of rhinoceros beetles look like? They are about the same size.
In areas of sympatry, what do two different species of rhinoceros beetles look like? One species is much smaller than the other species.
What are four different kinds of exploitation? Predation, Herbivory, Parasitism, and Parasitoids
What do parasitoids do to another species? (2) They invade another species and eventually kill it. It may alter the host's behavior.
Why would a parasitoid potentially alter the host's behavior? To benefit the reproduction of the parasitoid.
What is one example of something that a parasitoid can alter in terms of behavior of the host? Movement patterns (Ex: make it move to water, climb upwards, or stay still)
Why would a parasitoid want to alter what plant the host chooses? It can affect the host plant choice so foraging behavior will benefit the parasitoid.
Parasitoids can use viruses - what is an example? Bracovirus
Where can parasitoids pack viruses? in ovaries
What can the viruses that parasitoids carry cause? Brain swelling (It affects body guarding behavior)
What kind of individuals will parasitoids generally not infect? Those who are not sexually mature
What is a sex-linked example of the effects of parasitoidism? Wasps lay eggs on male crickets (who sing) Mutant males can't sing so won't get parasitized, but natural selection favors males who call
What does a bracovirus do? It alters the behavior of the parasitoid host
The ____ directs the population of the predator. Prey
What are three things the Lotka Volterra equations show? How populations oscillate together, how the prey peaks first and then the predator, and other environmental factors
Lotka Volterra: What does the x axis represent? Prey isocline
Lotka Volterra: What does the y axis represent? Predator isocline
What is handling time? The time it takes to capture, manipulate, and process food
What is Refugia? Areas (situations) whereby animals gain some protections from being exploited
What is immigration? The movement of new individuals into a population
What do cicadas seek refuge in? Numbers. Even if all of the predators are eating, they can't eat them all.
What is masting? It is in plants and it is a time where all individuals fruit together to avoid seed predation
What "natural disaster" can be required for refugia? Fire. It can be required for germination and cause a mass germination after
How does size help animals with refugia? Larger animals are safer from predators.
What happens with the coevolution between two species? Each adapts to changes in the other
What are mutualisms? Interactions between individuals of different species that benefits both individuals
What are the two categories that mutualisms can be? Falcultative or obligate
What is an example of a three way mutualism? Lichen! (Algae + yeast + fungus)
What are two different histories of mutualisms through endosymbiosis? Mitochondria and chloroplasts
When should mutualisms evolve? When the fitness of individuals that engage in mutualism is greater than individuals that don't
What are three different organisms that share mutualisms with plants? Pollinators, bacteria, fungi
What is a rhizosphere? An area around a root that is inhabited by a unique population of microorganisms
What percent of species have mycorrhizal associations? 90
What inorganic nutrient is tropical limited by? Phosphorous
What inorganic nutrient is temperate limited by? Nitrogen
Mutualism between plant and mycorrhizal fungi: What benefit does the plant get? It is able to obtain more inorganic nutrients
Mutualism between plant and mycorrhizal fungi: What benefit does the fungi get? It obtains sugars
Where is Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) found? Inside plant cells (Endo)
Where is Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) found? Outside of roots.
For ectomycorrhizal fungi, what does more hyphae equal? More absorption
What is the mycorrhizosphere? It is the area around the mycorrhizal fungi where nutrients are released
What is increased near the mycorrhizosphere? Microbial population and activity
Mycorrhizal Fungi: What do you see with rich soils? More shoot, less root. More energy on reproduction.
Mycorrhizal Fungi: What do you see with poor soils? Less shoot, more root. More associations.
What is AMF's role in ecological restoration? It increases host establishment and increases soil quality (Nitrogen and aeration)
Explain the Acacia-Ant symbiosis Tree has thorns that ants libe in. Tree has nectaries for food that ants eat. Ants protect the tree from herbivores. ALSO caterpillars - secrete a sugary substance for ants to eat so they can feed on the tree.
Coral Mutualisms: Corals and Crustaceans: What does the crustacean do? Protect the coral from sea stars. Stimulate mucus flow.
Coral Mutualisms: Corals and Crustaceans: What does the coral provide? Lipid rich mucus that the crustaceans feed on.
Coral Mutualisms: Corals and Crustaceans: What if the corals does now have mucus present? Unwanted things will grow on the coral in the absence of mucus such as algae and tunicates
What does a community consist of? All the species that interact with one another in a given area.
What three things does community structure describe? The number of species, the relative abundance of species, and the kinds of species (both taxonomically and functionally)
What does a guild consist of? Organisms that all obtain their energy in a similar manner
What are some examples of guilds? herbicovres, granivores, filter feeders, etc
What would you NOT have a guild of? Producers
What is a life form? It is a grouping of organisms based on their plant growth and development.
What are four examples of life forms? Grasses, shrubs, trees, and forbs
What do life forms indicate? (4) soil depth, nutrient levels, moisture availability, animals in the area
Guilds and life forms DO NOT reflect _____ _____, only _____ _____. evolutionary history, energy transfers
What can diatom life forms and ecological guilds be used for? to assess pesticide contamination in rivers
How are diatoms grouped and separated? By size and shape
What is an indicator species? They are sensitive to environmental change.
What are stalked diatoms sensitive to? They are more sensitive to pesticides and herbicides than motile diatoms
What do mucus tubule diatoms do when pesticides are present? They can live with the toxins present while the stalked ones will die
For most species abundance, what kind of distribution do you expect to see? Log normal distribution (looks like a bell shaped curve)
What do food webs impact? Abundance
What do food webs show? Feeding interactions in a community
What is interaction strength? The effect of one species on the abundance of another species
How do you test to see the strength of an interaction? Ex: lynx and a hare Take away the lynx to see the effect. If the hare population booms, then it was a strong interaction. You remove the interactor.
What does a bottom-up control influence? physical or chemical properties on primary production such as temperature and nutrients
What is a bottom up control in terms of trophic levels? Primary production influences other trophic levels. Moves from the bottom up. Literally.
What is a top down control in terms of trophic levels? It is the influence of consumers on an ecosystem which affects other trophic levels. Moves from the top down. Literally.
What are top-down controls also known as? The trophic cascades hypothesis. It shows the effects of predators on prey, often showing tertiary consumers.
How do you detect the effects of secondary consumers on an ecosystem? Remove the secondary consumers.
What happens if primary producers decrease? It is bad for the community and causes a decrease in diversity
What is biomass? The total mass of all living species in an area.
What is compensatory growth? There is increased growth rates with a reduction in respiration and self shading. The plant uses the energy for growth instead of producing sugars.
What does intermediate levels of grazing cause? Most compensatory growth
A keystone species is like the critical piece in an arch. What happens if you remove it? The arch collapses.
What kind of biodiversity does a kelp forest have? (low, moderate, high) High
Community: Urchins, Sea Otters, and Kelp: What do sea otters do? Generate heat. They have a fast metabolism so they eat a lot. They can eat urchins.
Community: Urchins, Sea Otters, and Kelp: What do the Urchins do? They feed on dead stuff and plants. They love kelp and destroy kelp forests quickly by either eating the whole kelp or weakening the bases
Community: Urchins, Sea Otters, and Kelp: What happens to the urchin, kelp, and biodiversity when sea otters ARE present? Urchins decrease, Kelp increases, overall biodiversity increases.
Community: Urchins, Sea Otters, and Kelp: Who is the keystone species in this example? You can argue either Otter or Kelp as the keystone species
What are two examples of keystone species? Gopher tortoise, Ficus trees.
What happens if you remove any top predator? The top-down cascade effect and it also prevents competitive exclusion
When we see an increase in top predators, what else do we see? An increase in species richness.
What is an invasive species? An introduced species that is non-native that has a negative effect on native species.
What is a disturbance? A sudden change in an abiotic factor that causes a change in the community.
What is ecological succession? A change in a biological community over time.
What is primary succession? The creation of new substrate.
Who is the first species on the scene during primary succession? Pioneer species
What are two examples of areas where primary succession occurs? The sides of volcanoes and glaciers retreating
What do pioneer species NOT need to survive? soil
What is an example of an awesome pioneer species? Lichens!
How are lichens an awesome pioneer species? They secrete acids to break down the rock and substrate to get nutrients.
What happens when a lichen, a pioneer species, dies? Organic matter will be added to the rock.
What is an example of a species that participates in primary succession? Mosses
Primary succession: What role do mosses play? They can grow in little soil and as they die they add organic matter to the soil so that flowering plants can grow.
Primary Succession: What is an intermediate community dominated by? Shrubs
What is another name for a climax community? Mature community
What makes a community mature? It has a stable group of plants and animals. It is the end result of succession (but not really because communities are always changing)
Community stages: What happens in the pioneer stage? Small plants grow in cracks. There is water and minerals.
Community stages: Primary Succession:What are two examples of plants you would see in the pioneer stage? Moss and grass
Community stages: What happens to the soil in the intermediate stage? The soil layer builds up
Community stages: Primary Succession:What are two examples of plants you would see in the intermediate stage? Small shrubs and trees
Community stages: What do you see in the climax stage? Trees grow taller. They block out the light, thereby thinning the understory.
Life history traits: What are two types of plants? Early and Late Successional
Life History Traits: What happens to the seeds of early successional plants? They are well dispersed by wind, birds, and bats.
Life History Traits: What is early successional enhanced by? Light
Life History Traits: What kind of seeds do early successional plants have? Many small seeds
Life History traits: What happens to the seeds of late successional plants? They are poorly dispersed and end up close to the parent plant. They are moved by either gravity or mammals.
Do all plants stay early or late successional? Evolutionarily speaking, it pays for them to switch strategies over time.
Is succession clear cut? No! It depends on disturbances and interactions
Interactions: What happened with facilitation in our game? (Early vs late) Late won and moved forward, while early moved back
Interactions: What happened with inhibition(competition) in our game? (Early vs Late) Late won and moved forward while early stayed in place.
Interactions: What happened with tolerance in our game? (Early vs Late) Both early and late stayed put.
What is an example of an event that causes secondary succession? A fire
Community Stages: Secondary succession (Temperate deciduous forest) : What are some examples of what you would see in the primary stage? crabgrass, horseweed, aster, ragweed
Community Stages: Secondary succession (Temperate deciduous forest) : What are some examples of what you would see in the intermediate stage? pines, shrubs, young deciduous
Community Stages: Secondary succession (Temperate deciduous forest) : What are some examples of what you would see in the climax stage? Oaks and Hickories
What does FIT stand for? Facilitation, Inhibition, Tolerance
What are the three models of succession? Facilitation model, inhibition model, tolerance model.
What happens in the Facilitation model? Some initial species are able to colonize and modify the environment, which makes it no longer suitable for themselves. This allows a new suite of species to appear.
Facilitation model: What happens in rocky intertidal communities between the red and green algae? Green algae first came and modified the area so that the red could come and colonize. Green algae facilitated red algae which facilitated surf grass.
Facilitation model: What happens in rocky intertidal communities if red algae is removed? Brown algae comes in and invades (kelp) It does not allow the recruitment of surf grass.
What happens in the tolerance model? There is initial colonization by many species (pioneer) that modify the environment, having little to no effect on other species. Later colonizers eventually eliminate earlier species.
What happens in the inhibition model? Early occupants modify the environment and make it less suitable for late arrivals. Other species can only invade if the area is disturbed by events such as fires and landslides.
What do you need to know about the three mechanisms of succession? What are they and what do they predict
What happened with the inhibition model when they experimentally removed algae? Early colonists inhibit recruitment, so when the intermediate community species was removed, it was recolonized by pioneer species rather than new species.
What happens to species richness with community age? It increases rapidly and then levels off
What are pioneer species limited by? Nitrogen. They get it from nitrogen fixing bacteria and soil
What are intermediate and climax communities limited by? Phosphorous. It is trapped in the bedrock and not easily in the soil, so when lichen is on a rock it uses acids and frees up phosphorous.
What happens when phosphorous is freed up in an intermediate or climax community? It is doing well and vegetation increases while nutrient losses decrease.
What nutrients are the community staged limited by and in what order? Early on they are limited by Nitrogen, and later on they are limited by Phosphorous.
What is species richness? The number of species in a community?
What is species evenness? The relative abundance of species
How is species evenness shown? As a proportion. Ex: 2 green / 10 total = 1/5
what happens to species evenness if an invasive species comes in? It is bad!
Species richness can be the same while the evenness is different: True or false? True!
What is species diversity? It is a combination of evenness and richness
What is the value range for species diversity? 0 - 1.0 (1 being good evenness)
What do rank abundance curves do? Rank species from most abundant to least abundant. Less fluctuation = more even
Rank abundance curves: The more even the line is, the more____ the community. Diverse
When is there greater evenness in rank abundance curves? When the slope approaches zero.
What does the Shannon Wiener Index measure? The species diversity based on the proportion of each species in a community.
What is the general equation (simplified) for Shannon Wiener Index? H' = The sum of: (ln pi)pi
What is the minimum and maximum value for the Shannon Wiener Index? Minimum value is 0, there is no upper limit
The higher the Shannon Wiener Index (H') the higher the ________ and _______. Richness and evenness.
What are three factors that affect species diversity? Environmental Heterogeneity, Nutrient Availability, and Environmental Equilibrium and Disturbance. ***KNOW: how these topics affect species diversity
What happens when the Community and Ecosystem reach Stability? Because there is stability, it does not change because there is no disturbance.
Key Concept: Communities tend to be more stable when there is higher ____ _____. Species diversity
What is the insurance hypothesis? As the number of species increases, the probability of overcoming disturbances increases. (As diversity increases, stability increases)
What is resistance? The ability to maintain structure or function in face of a potential disturbance.
What is resilience? The ability to return to a previous state after a disturbance.
How is there a trade off between resilience and stability? With a high resilience, it is like two hills. It is not as stable, but if it changes it can easily go back. With a low resilience, it is like two mountains, although it is more stable, if it changes it is NOT easy to return.
What were the three extra credit topics? *Reminder so that you pay extra attention to them* Acacia trees and ants, Parasitoids, Interspecific vs Intraspecific
Hey guys! (Aka select few that I sent this to) I hope you all do well on your ecology exam tomorrow :) I hope this helped!
Created by: 1005680318



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