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periodontology the study of treatment of diseases of the tissues around the teeth
periodontium tissues around the teeth
gingiva fibrous, epithelial tissue surrounding a tooth; may be divided into three types
attached gingiva the portion that is firm, dense, stippled, and bound to the underlying periosteum, tooth, and bone
keratinized hard or bony tissue
mucogingival border where the gingiva and mucous membrane unite, indicated by the color change from pink gingiva to red mucosa
marginal gingiva the portion that is unattached to underlying tissues and helps to form the sides of the gingival crevice
sulcus groove
papillary gingiva the part of the marginal gingiva that occupies the interproximal spaces also called interdental papilla
periodontal ligaments bundles of fibers that support and retain the tooth in the socket
cementum outer, hard surface covering the root section of the tooth
alveolar bone process compact bone that forms the tooth socket; supported by stronger bone tissue of the mandible and maxilla and accepts periodontal fiber attachment the alveolar process make up the cribriform plate to form and line the tooth socket.
alveolar crest fibers found at the cementoenamel junction; help to retain the tooth in its socket and protect the deeper fibers
horizontal fibers connect the alveolar bone to the upper part of the root and assist with control of lateral movement
oblique fibers attach the alveolar socket to the majority of the root cementum and assist in resisting the axial forces
apical fiber bundles running from the apex of the tooth to the alveolar bone, fibers that help to prevent tipping and dislocation, as well as protect nerve and blood supply to the tooth
interradicular fiber bundles are present in multirooted teeth, extending apically from the tooth furcation; help the tooth resist tipping, turning, and dislocation
plaque plate or buildup
pellicle film which harbors an assortment of bacterial pathogens and enables plaque to build up
erythema the gingiva is red and appears inflamed
edema overgrown tissue
hyperplasia excessive number of tissue cells
hypertrophy excessice celluar growth
stippling spotting
exudate passing out of pus
dental plaque involvement tissues react to irritants
dental plaque with sustemic factors included pregnancy, hormone, medication, or malnurition may modify and intensify the disease course of action; sometimes called induced gingivitis
non-dental plaque lesions these are of specific bacterial, viral, fungal, or genetic origin, such as gonorrhea, herpes, and candida infections
allergies the patient may be allergic to dental restorative materials, reactions to foods, additives, and so forth
traumatic lesions, injury the patient may have been subjected to an external force or have been injured in some way
chronic periodontitis perviously termed adult periodontitis, this is the most common type of slowly progressive periodontal disease
aggressive periodontitis perviously termed early-onset periodontitis, this is a rapidly progressive disease
refractory periodontitis the periodontitis progresses in spit of excellent patent complaince and provision of periodontal therapy
desquamative shedding or scaling off
periodontitis as manifestation of systemic disease periodontal inflammatory reactions occur as a result of diseases and genetic disorders
necrotizing periodontal disease rapid gingival distruction with bacterial invasion of connective tissue may be a manifestation of systemic disease, such as HIV infection
necrotizing ulcerative gingivits with a foul odor and a loss of interdental papilla, sometimes called "trench mouth"
necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis with bone pain and rapid bone loss
periodontitis associated with endodontic lesions this simple classification was added to distinguish between periodontitis with endodontic inflammation involvement
developmental or acquired deformities and conditions deformities appear around teeth, edentulous ridges, and form trauma
medical history questions regarding diabetes, pregnancy, smoking, hypertension, dedication, substance abuse, and so forth
dental history chief complaint, past dental records, and radiographs; complete assesment of resoration condition, tooth position, mobility
extraoral structure assessment exam of oral mucosa, muscles of mastication, lips, floor of mouth, tongue, palate, salivary glands, and the oropharynx area
periodontal probing depths charting and recording findings of probe depths, assessing plaque and calculus presence, soft tissue, and implant conditions
assessing intraoral findings exam for tories, abnormal frenum placement and size, furcation involvement
index measurement of conditions to a standard
periodontal debridement removing supragingival and subgingival plaque, calculus, stain, and irritants through tooth-crown and root-surface scaling and root planing
tooth and surface polishing polishing surfaces to remove accumulated extrinsic(outer) stains and endotoxins(absorbed pathogens)
selective polishing term applied to the polishing of chosed tooth sites or areas
prophylaxis term applied to the combination of debridement and tooth polishing; used for purposes of insurance and scheduling
patient educatio customized instruction in oral hygiene
correction of plaque retention factors dental intervention in exsisting conditons of open contacts, overcrowding, open or overhanging restoration margins, narrowenbrasures, and ill-fitting appliances
monitoring of patient determination of progress and reevaluation of patient condition and efforts
mucogingival excision used to correct defects in shape, position, or amount of gingiva aroun the tooth
gingivectomy excision of gum tissue area
gingivoplasty surgical contour of gingival tissue
periodontal flap surgery separating a loosened sextion of tissue from the adjacent tissues to enable elimination of deposits and contouring of alveolar bone
envelope flap no vertical incision with the mucoperiosteal flap retracted from a horizontal inision line
mucoperiosteal mucosal tissue flap including the periosteum, reflected from the bone
partial-thickness flap surgical flap including mucosa and connective tissue but no periosteum
pedicle flap tissue flap with lateral incisions
positioned flap flap that is moved to a new position, apically, lateraly, or coronally
repositioned flap surgical flap replaced in its original position
sliding flap pedicle flap re-situated in a new position
osseous surgery tissue surgery with alteration in bony support of the teeth
re-entry second-stage surgical procedure to enhance or improve conditions from a pervious surgical procedure
vestibuloplasty surgical alteration of gingival mucous membrane in vestibule of the mouth
ENAP (excisional new attachment procedure) removal of chronically inflamed soft tissue to permit formation of new tissue attachment
guided tissue regeneration placement of semipermeable membrane beneath the flap to prevent ingrowth of epithelium between the flap and the defect
allograft human bone graft from someone other than the patient
bone graft involves transplants to restore bone loss from periodontal disease
autograft bone graft from another site in the same patient
xenograft graft taken from another species, such as cow or pig bone
allogenic addition of synthetic material to repair or rebuild up bone
endosteal implants of various designs placed within the bone
subperiosteal implant placement beneath the periosteum and onto the bone
transosteal implant placement through the bone
endodontic implant set within the apex of the root
Created by: b_nybabe101