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1 - Algorithms

Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures(Python)

abstract data type a logical description of how we view the data and the operations that are allowed without regard to how they will be implemented
abstraction tool that allows us to view the problem and solution in such a way as to separate the so-called logical and physical perspectives
algorithm a step-by-step list of instructions for solving any instance of the problem that might arise
class a description of what the data look like (the state) and what the data can do (the behavior)
computable if an algorithm exists for solving it
data abstraction “black box” view of a process; using an already implemented solution
data structure implementation of an abstract data type
data type provides an interpretation for this binary data so that we can think about the data in terms that make sense with respect to the problem being solved
deep equality equality by the same value
dictionary collection of associated pairs of items where each pair consists of a key and a value
encapsulation providing a level of abstraction where we are concerned only with what the data is representing and not with how it will eventually be constructed
exception runtime error
format operator %, used with strings
formatted strings a template in which words or spaces that will remain constant are combined with placeholders for variables that will be inserted into the string
HAS-A relationship relationship where one class is an instance variable of another class (no inheritance exists)
implementation-independence allows the programmer to switch the details of the implementation without changing the way the user of the data interacts with it
information hiding encapsulating the details of the implementation
inheritance the ability for one class to be related to another class; a child class is related to a parent class
inheritance hiearchy graphical representation of an IS-A Relationship
interface functions provided by computer scientists to allow interaction with the computer
IS-A relationship the parent/child or superclass/subclass relationship that allows the inheritance of characteristics and behaviors
list an ordered collection of zero or more references to Python data objects
list comprehension a method for creating a list that uses iteration and selection constructs
method a function that takes a class instance as its first parameter; a member of a class
mutability the ability to be modified
object data items that are an instance of a class
procedural abstraction hiding the details of any computation by defining a function
programming process of taking an algorithm and encoding it into a notation, a programming language, so that it can be executed by a computer
prompt single string parameter given to Python’s input function
self a special parameter that will always be used as a reference back to the object itself
shallow equality occurs when two objects are references to the same object
simulation an application used to imitate a real-world process
string sequential collection of zero or more letters, numbers and other symbols
subclass inherits characteristic data and behavior
superclass provides characteristic data and behavior
truth table graphical representation showing the input-to-output mapping of values
Created by: shoemaker