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Glycolysis recap!

What is the overall reaction of Glycolysis? Glucose + 2NAD+ +2ADP + 2Pi -> 2 Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2H+ +2ATP + 2H2O
What is the purpose of Glycolysis? (Definition) A metabolic process that breaks down glucose through a series of reactions to either pyrvate and releases energy for the body in the form of ATP
Glycolysis occurs in the...? Cytoplasm
True or false: Glycolysis is aerobic FALSE. Remember Glycolysis is the first step in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, because it's ANAEROBIC.
How many enzymes catalyse the glycolytic pathway? 10. 10 steps = 10 enzymes
Why does each step require a different enzyme? Because enzymes are highly specialised, substrate specific proteins. Each enzyme has a particular conformation (shape) therefore can only recognise and process the substrate that fits it's active site.
Other than generating ATP, why is Glycolysis needed in biological systems like the human body? To minimize hyperglycemia, clearing glucose from the systemic/ peripheral circulation.
What is the overall (net) yield of Glycolysis? 1 molecule of glucose creates - ? Pyruvate, ? NADH? ATP? H2O? 1 glucose is converted to 2 pyruvate, 2NADH, 2 ATP and 2H20
How many ATP molecules are used during Glycolysis and how many are created? Can you say which stages use and create ATP? 2 are used (1 - Glucose to Glucose 6- phosphate, 2 - Fructose 6 - phosphate to fructose 1,6 biphosphate) 4 are created (2 - 1,3 biphosphogycerate x 2 to 3 phosphoglycerate x2, another 2 phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate x 2).
What is OIL RIG? What molecule performs these actions in Glycolysis? Oxidation is Loss Reduction is Gain. of electrons. NAD does.
NAD+ to NADH is a reduction reaction. True or false. True. NAD+ accepts Hydrogen atoms, and is converted to NADH (AKA reduced NAD) Remember Reduction is GAIN of electrons.
NADH to NAD+ is an oxidation reaction. True or false? True. NADH loses a Hydrogen atom and is converted to NAD+. (Remember, oxidation is LOSS of electrons.
NAD+ is an example of a co-enzyme because it: Is required by enzymes, to shuttle a chemical group to help complete a reaction, and is changed in the process. NAD+ shuttles electrons, therefore altering the charge on molecules and allowing them to fully interact, during Glycolysis.
What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate.
ATP is the biological energy molecule. True or false. True.
ATP is created from what during respiration? Glucose
Energy is released from ATP by breaking what type of bond, between which components, using what type of reaction? Covalent bond between the 2 terminal phosphates is broken via hydrolysis.
Large amounts of energy are released from ATP making it better than glucose for energy supply. True or false? False. Remember, that the small sustained packets of energy in ATP make it useful for sustained immediate energy supply. Only takes breaking one bond in ATP to release energy, takes several bonds broken in Glucose to release energy.
ATP contains 3 phosphates, joined to a what? Nucleotide base. Adenine. This consists of a Ribose sugar and a nitrogenous base
What's the difference between a purine and pyrimidine /base? Purines = 2 x nitrogenous rings fused together. Pyrimidines = 1 nitrogenous ring only. Which one is Adenine?
What is dephosphorylation? Why is it important in Glycolysis? The removal of a phosphate group from an organic compound by hydrolysis. Energy is released by dephosphorylation to drive Glycolysis- which stages?
ADP is recombined with inorganic phosphate to produce ATP by what process? Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Match the substrate and reactants/products to the enzyme: ATP Synthase, ATPase, ADP, Pi, ATP, O2, H2O ATP Synthase = ADP+Pi + O2 ATPase= ATP + H2O
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H20 + 36 ATP What does this equation represent? Aerobic cellular respiration.
3 functions respiration is essential to? Movement. Temperature regulation. Protein synthesis
How does exercise affect respiration in humans? How can we tell? O2 - we breath less out because more is required for respiration. CO2 - we breath more out as a waste product of increased respiration. Water vapour - sweat more and breath more out as a waste product of increased respiration/heat loss
Created by: Kalypso
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