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a&p2

exam 2

QuestionAnswer
ACE inhibitors Block the renin-angiotensin II mechanism to help lower blood pressure
Aldosterone Helps reabsorb Na+ to help keep blood pressure up
Antigen Foreign substance that can provide an immune response “bad guys”
Artery Carries blood away from the heart, no valves, and have thicker walls than veins
Atherosclerosis Hardening of arteries die to fatty plaque build up in the walls. Can lead to heart attack or stroke. leads to high blood pressure
Autoimmune diseases Disease in which the immune system attacks the owners body (friendly fire). Psoriasis, RA, MS, Type 1 DM, Graves disease, Lupus, Glomerulonephritis
Blood flow Blood moving through a certain organ in a minute ( like blood flow through the liver) Blood flow= change in blood pressure/resistance
Blood pressure (and how to take it) Overall driving force for blood movement (see above equation. It is the pressure of the blood within the vessels. mmHg. 120/80 mmHg. Sphygmomanometer, stethoscope. Auscultation method.
Capillary types 1. Continuous- don’t allow a lot of exchange between the capillary and the tissue. 2. Sinusoidal- leakiest capillary, have some in the liver. 3. Fenestrated- fairly leaky, but don’t allow really large things through the capillary wall, most common type.
Cardiac output The amount of blood the heart pumps through the body in one minute. CO= heart rate*stroke volume
Cardiovascular center In the medulla. Helps control heart rate and blood pressure.
Circulatory shock (what are the types, and what is the problem) drop bp & reduce bf Life threatening 1.Cardiogenic shock- heart fails & can’t generate pressure. 2.Vascular shock- eg. Anaphylactic shock- blood vessels relax dropping bp. 3.Hypovolemic shock- too little blood (blood loss of dehy) drops BP
Class I vs. Class II MHC proteins Class I Class II On most body cells On Antigen presenting cells Cytotoxic T cells respond to this Helper T cells respond to this
Diuretics Help you get rid of extra fluid to reduce BP
Epinephrine Increases heart rate, and will increase blood pressure
Epinephrine 1. Auto graft- tissue from yourself, no rejection risk. 2. Isograph- tissue from twin no rejection risk.3. Allograft- from a different person, risk for rejection requires immunosuppression’s. Most common graft type. 4. Xenograft- from a different species
Humoral vs. cellular immunity Humoral uses B cells and works in the body fluids. Involves the production of antibodies. Cellular uses T cells and works in solid tissues. They both use lymphocytes which are white blood cells. Part pf the adaptive (specific) immune system
Hyper and hypocalcemia High and low calcium
Hyper and hypokalemia High and low potassium
Hypotension vs. hypertension Low blood pressure (<100 systolic pressure) usually not a problem but can be in elderly or malnourished. Hyper tension is high BP (>140 systolic) puts you at risk for other diseases and makes the heart work harder.
Immediate vs delayed hypersensitivities Immediate symptoms start quickly due to histamine release. Treat with antihistamines. Delayed symptoms take longer to present due to Cytokines. Treat with steroids.
Macrophages “big eater” develop from monocytes. These are phagocytes that have class II MHC, so they can also activate helper T cells
Neutrophil Most abundant WBC, it is phagocytic. Alco an antigen presenting cell.
Perforin and granzyme Chemicals releases by cytotoxic T cells to poison other cells. Peforin pokes holes in the membrane. Granzymes tear up the DNA.
Plasma cells B cells specialized to produce antibodies
Precapillary sphincters and capillary beds When the precapillary sphincters constrict (or close) they shut off blood flow to the true capillaries, forcing the blood through the vascular shunt.
Pulmonary vs. peripheral congestion These are two types of CHF. Pulmonary congestion means that the fluid builds up in the lungs due to left side heart failure. Peripheral congestion means that the fluid buildup in the body systems (usually the legs) due to the right side heart failure.
Self-flags Helps the immune system recognize cells as yours. MHC proteins are self-flags
Systole vs. diastole Contraction vs. relaxation of the heart
Tonsils Provides a place for WBCs to meet bacteria to help prime the immune system
Vasoconstriction vs. vasodilation Tunica media contracts for vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. It relaxes for vasodilation to lower blood pressure
Vasomotor tone Constant contraction of the tunica media to help maintain blood pressure
Vein Takes blood back to the heart. Have thinner walls and have valves
What do antibodies do? PLAN- Precipitation, Lysis, Agglutination, Neutralization
What do lymph nodes do? Filter lymph, helps remove pathogens from the lymph
What does the spleen do? Site for lymphocyte proliferation; filters pathogens from blood; can store red blood cell breakdown products; can store platelets and monocytes; can make red blood cells in a fetus
Where do you have large clusters of lymph nodes? Axillary, inguinal, cervical
Created by: loganhowe13