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Aphasia

Neurology of language

QuestionAnswer
Auditory comprehension of language: Step 1 1. The ear converts acoustic energy into electrochemical energy and transmits it to the brainstem’s cochlear nuclear complex (CNC) via cranial nerve VIII.
Auditory comprehension of language: Step 2 2. The CNC sends this information to the thalamus.
Auditory comprehension of language: Step 3 3. The thalamus relays the information to the primary auditory cortex (PAC) for signal processing.
Auditory comprehension of language: Step 4 4. The PAC routes to Wernicke’s area for meaning attachment.
Auditory comprehension of language: Step 5 5. Wernicke’s area projects to Broca’s area for higher-level syntactical processing. (Even silent reading reading activates auditory cortex.)
Visual comprehension of language: Step 1 1. Visual information is projected to the thalamus’s lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) via the optic tracts.
Visual comprehension of language: Step 2 2. The thalamus projects back to the occipital lobe’s visual areas (BA 17–19) for visual processing via the geniculocalcarine tract.
Visual comprehension of language: Step 3 3. The visual areas project a dorsal stream of vision (i.e., the “where”) and a ventral stream of vision (i.e., the “what”). When reading, the anterior, parietotemporal, and occipitotemporal reading systems activate.
Oral production of language: Step 1 1. Desire and thoughts to communicate originate in the prefrontal cortex and are sent to Broca’s area for language encoding and speech planning.
Oral production of language: Step 2 2. Broca’s area projects to the supplementary motor area (SMA; top of area 6), which activates speech plans.
Oral production of language: Step 3 3. SMA relays now active plans to the primary motor cortex.
Oral production of language: Step 4 4. Primary motor cortex sends plans to the speech muscles for execution.
Written expression of language: Step 1 1. Desire and thoughts originate in the prefrontal cortex, which is sent to Broca’s area for language encoding.
Written expression of language: Step 2 2. Language-encoded thoughts sent to premotor cortex (BA 6; Exner’s area) for handwriting motor planning.
Written expression of language: Step 3 3. Motor plans sent to the primary motor cortex.
Written expression of language: Step 4 4. Primary motor cortex sends writing motor plans to the dominant hand.
Written expression of language: Step 5 5. The left superior parietal lobe coordinates the visuouspatial elements of writing. (There are visuouspatial elements to writing – you can’t write it all in one space.)
Aphasia profile components Aud. Comp (corresponds with reading) - Verbal production (corresponds with writing) - Repetition - Naming (word finding/retrieval is poor for all types)
Created by: ashea01